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KIRKCALDY is a royal burgh of very ancient date, the seat of a
presbytery, a sea port, and the capital of its parish, 14 miles n.
from Edinburgh, 33 s.w. from Dundee, and 6 from Burntisland (all
rail distances), on the North British Railway (Edinburgh, Perth
and Dundee line), the station of which is contiguous to the town.
It is situated on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth, and
stretches along the base of a range of rising grounds to the extent
of upwards of three miles. By a recent Act of Parliament the
suburbs of Abbot shall, Pathhead, Gallatown, and Sinclairtown, are
included in the boundaries of the burgh, the new boundary line thus
including portions of the parishes of Kirkcaldy, Abbotshall, King-
horn and Dysart, and the quoad sacra parishes of St. James,
Invertiel and Pathhead. From the narrow dimensions of the site
on which it stands, the inhabitants have from the first been
necessitated to build their habitations in a continuous line along
th shore, though without much regard to the regularity of their
structure; and having thence elongated most disproportionately,
the place from an early period has been Btyled " the Jang toon o'
Kirkcaldy," in familiar allusion to its appearance. Though formerly
limited to this long street, and a few narrow diverging lanes, houses
were in time erected on the ascent behind, or near to the shore in
front; and it now comprises many well-built cross streets and
detached dwellings, the residence of the opulent classes ; so that,
when viewed from the sea, the town appears environed by finely-
enclosed productive fields, ornamented by the beautiful grounds
and conspicuous tower of Raith (the residence of Ronald C. M.
Ferguson, Esq.), and the grounds surrounding the elegant mansion
of Dunnikier, the seat of James T. Oswald, Esq. The prospect
from the heights is of a different, but equally delightful, character,
embracing, as it does, the town and landscape immediately beneath
and around, with a view of the busy waters of the Firth of Forth
From a remote date the town of Kirkcaldy has sustained great
viccissitudes and fluctuations in its commerce and prosperity.
When Charles I. elected it anew into a royal burgh, it had, accord-
ing to tradition, one hundred ships belonging to it, and ranked as
the sixth place of maritime importance iu Scotland ; hut in 1673 the
number of vessels in its possession had decreased to twenty-five.
On the return of peace in 1763, the trade of the port revived, and
the quantity of shipping consequently increased and progressively
augmented, so that in 1792 it boasted twenty-six vessels ; from this
period Kirkcaldy has gradually risen into repute, both as a port and
a manufacturing town. The principal importations are flax, timber,
rain,&c; the exports are linen, yarn, machinery and coal. The
number of vessels belonging to the port has for some years been on
the decline ; for the year ending 1868 there were 35 vessels, with an
aggregate tonnage of 8,689; for the year ending 1871, 29 vessels,
with an aggregate tonnage of 3,496; for the year ending 1S75, 27
vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 3,309 ; for the year ending
1880, 21 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 2,290 ; and for the
year ending 1884, 18 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,356;
fishing boats registered at port 830, tonnago 9,900. Vessels from
this port were employed in the Davis Straits whale fishery for many
years, but this trade is now discontinued. A branch from the main
line of railway traverses the entire length of the harbour— a great
convenience to operations of loading and unloading vessels. The
harbour, which has been greatly improved within the last few
years, is almost dry at low water, but at full tide is capable
of admitting vessels of large burden. The custom house,
having control over a considerable
line of coast, extending
from Aberdour to Anstruther, has been removed to Burntisland. ! the coast northward, into" tolerably high grounds
The prominent trade of Kirkcaldy and neighbourhood bears an before noticed, is in this parish. Acreage, 4,135.
intimate affinity with that of Dundee, consisting of the spinning
of flax, tow, jute, and the weaving of linen goods for home and
foreign consumption ; striped bollands, dowlas, ticks, checks, sail-
cloths, &c, are amongst the fabrics produced, and in the manufac-
ture of which there are several extensive power-loom factories in
full operation ; there are also several bleaching fields and dye-
works, and four china and earthenware manufactories, where a
BUperior class of goods is made. Kirkcaldy is now the centre
of the floor cloth and linoleum manufacture of the kingdom ;
there are six factories, employing a large number of hands.
The other branches include brass and iron founding, machine
making, and a considerable corn and meal trade. The general com-
merce of the place is assisted by resident branches of five banking
establishments— namely, the National Bank of Scotland, Limited,
the Commercial Bank of Scotland, Limited (who have also each a
branch at Sinclairtown), the Bank of Scotland, the Union Bank of
Scotland, Limited, and the British Linen Company. There is also
a branch of the National Security Savings Bank. There are now
many elegant shops, with extensive stocks of fashionable, orna-
mental, and us. ful goods, and there is a good hotel. The streets
are well paved and lighted with gas. The celebrated Adam Smith,
author of " The Wealth of Nations," was born here in the year 1723.
The civic government of the town is vested in a town council, con-
sisting of thirty-four members, of whom one is provost and admiral
of the burgh aud harbour, four bailies, one dean of guild, and one
treasurer. The council are also commissioners of police under the
General Police Act, and local authority under the Health Act. The
management of the harbour is vested in a board of commissioners,
fourteen in number, consisting of the provost and bailies and others.
The burgh is conjoined with Dunfermline, Kinghorn, Dysart, and
Burntisland in sending one member to Parliament ; the present mem-
ber is Sir George Campbell. In 1829 a handsome building of large
dimensions was completed to supersede the old town house; it con-
tains a hall for burgh aud district meetings, a burgh court and
record rooms, an office for the town clerk, and other apartments.
The sheriff holds a circuit court every Wednesday, under the Small
Debts Act ; and the justices of the peace likewise sit on the fourth
Monday monthly, for adjudicating claims under other pecuniary
acts. A Corn Exchange is situated in Cowan street, the first stono
of which was laid with masonic honours in May, 1859. The combi-
nation poorhouse is a conspicuous building, beautifully situated on
tho lands of Abden, in the parish of Kinghorn, commanding an
extensive view of the Firth of Forth. It was erected in 1849, is
capable of accommodating 150 inmates, and was opened for their
reception in May, 1850. The total cost considerably exceeded £5,000.
It is the joint property of the parishes of Kirkcaldy, Burntisland,
aud Kinghorn, nearly half being held by the parish of Kirkcaldy.
The parish church of Kirkcaldy, which is in the Gothic style, stands
on an eminence above aud at the back of the town; the other
places of worship are the parish churches of Invertiel, Abbotshall,
St. James, and Pathhead, six Free churches, three United Presby-
terian churches, one Episcopalian, one Independent, three Baptist,
aud one Roman Catholic chapel. The principal educational estab-
lishments consist of two handsome schools erected by the
School Board of the parliamentary burgh of Kirkcaldy, at a cost
of about £10,000, and capable of containiug upwards of 1,000
pupils; tho old burgh school of Kirkcaldy having room for upwards
of 400 pupils (this school includes a division for teaching the
higher branches of education under a rector and two assistants);
and three schools under the charge of the School Board of the
parliamentary burgh of Dysart, capable of accommodating about
900 pupils. There are also three schools established under the wil
of the late Robert Philp, Esq. of Edenshead, for instructing
children of both sexes selected from amongst the poorest
inhabitants ; these schools can accommodate 600 pupils.
The property bequeathed by this gentleman for erecting and sus-
taining schools in these places is estimated at nearly £70,000. The
pupils are admitted between the ages of six and fifteen, and are
taught only the plainest elementary branches; thirty shillings per
annum is allowed for clothing each pupil. There is also a charitable
trust [by John Thomson, for educating poor children, and for an-
nuities for the support of poor inhabitants. There are also private
seminaries for the education of youug ladies. Tteie is a working
men's club and reading room, and a subscription library. There
are three weekly papers published, two on Saturday and one on
Wednesday. The market, which is a stoGk market for the sale of
grain, is held on Saturday. The parish of Kirkcaldy embraces an
area of 1,177 acres, and in 1S71 contained a population of 7.003 ; the
parliamentary burgh at the same period having 12,422. The num-
bers for 1881 were : for the parish, 8,528, and for the burgh, 15,055.
The population of the extended burgh of Kirkcaldy is now (1885)
about 30,300.
Abbots H4.LL, although a distinct parish, is now included in the
burgh of Kirkcaldy, as before mentioned. Its principal street, called
Links street (nearly a mile long), runs west in a direct line with the
High street of the town named. The trade aud manufacture are of
the same character as those of Kirkcaldy ; and more immediately
iu Abbotshall are dye works, an earthenware manufactory, and a large
earn mill. The places of worship are Established and Free churches;
and the schools are parochial, " Philp's Institution," and subscrip-
tion. The general appearance of the parish, the extent of which is
about two miles either way, is very agreeable, rising gradually from
Raith House,
Population in
1881, 6,435.
Pathhead, now included in the burgh as before noticed, is situa-
ted chiefly on the face of a hill, looking towards the Firth of Forth,
and is joined by two other districts, respectively named Galla-
town and Sinci.aietown, also in the same burgh. The manufac-
ture of linen goods is briskly followed in these places. Dowlas,
ticks, sheeting, &c. of excellent quality are produced both by hand
and power; flax spinning is also carried onto some extent. At
Sinclairtown is an earthenware manufactory aud a branch of the
Commercial Bank of Scotland, Limited, and at Pathhead is a branch
of the National Bank of Scotland, Limited. The places of worship
are an Established church, two Free churches, and a meetinghouse
for Baptists. The means of education arc not wanting, a com-
modious school house having been erected in Pathhead some years
since, by the trustees of the late Robert Philp, Esq. of Edenshead ;
and in 1849, an auxiliary parochial or subscription school was
opened, also a subscription school in Sinclairtown, and one in
Gallatown, in all of which a sound and useful education is imparted.
Auchtebtool is a small inland parish and village, the latter
situated four miles west from Kirkcaldy and about the same distance
f roni Kinghorn, and in the midst of a beautifully diversified land-
scape, bounded on the north by Abbotshall, on the south by King-
horn, on the east by Auchterdei ran, and on the west by Beatb. It-
length is seven miles and its breadth one mile and a half. Agricnls
ture is the principal pursuit of the inhabitants, there not being any
kind of manufacture or trade in the place, except a distillery.
There is an Established church and a Board school here. From a
little lake, called Camillaloch, in this parish, the riverTeel takes its
rise; on the verge of the loch are the ruins of Camilla Castle, or
" Hallyards." Auchterteel is said to have been the original name of
the parish, deriving the appellation from its situation on the banks
of the Teel. The acreage of the parish is 2,738, tho population in
1881 being 706.
Letters are delivered at 6.30,8.50, and 11.0 a.m. and 6.35 p.m. Despatches to the North at 7.10 a.m. and 4.55 p.m. ; to Perth and
Dundee only, 1.50 and 8.0 p.m. ; to the South, 7-40 and 10.35 a.m., and 2.15, 4.15, 5.35, and 8.1*5 p.m.; to East and West of Fife, 7-10 a.m.
and 4.55 p.m. Money Order and Telegraph Office and Savings Bank.
Post Office, 130 Mid st. Pathhead, Robert Stenhouse, Post Master.— Letters are delivered at 7.10, 9.10, and 11.20 a.m. and 6.55 p.m.,
and are despatched (through Kirkcaldy) at 6.5 a.m. and 1.20, 5.0, and 7.25 p.m. On Saturday, 9.40 p.m.
Receiving Houses at Links Street, and Auchtertool.
*** Letters for Auchtertool, Abbotshall, Gallatown, Linktowu. and Sinclairtown should be addressed " near Kikkcaldy."

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