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management of the dairj', the improvements in agricultural
machinery and implements, tlie groivth of timber, the
extension of cottage accommodation and the application of
science generally to agriculture.
The Advocates' Library, by far the most valuable in
Scotland, was founded by Sir George Mackenzie, in 1682.
The collection of manuscripts numbers about 3,300 volumes,
relating chietly to the civil and ecclesiastical history of
Scotland, most of which have been printed. The library is
estimated to contain about 495,000 volumes. Tiiomas
Ruddiman, the Latinist, and David Hume, the historian,
were amongst its librarians. It is one of the iive public
libraries which still enjoy the privilege of receiving a copy
of every book published in the United Kingdom. It is dis-
tinguished by the liberality of its management — every
respectable applicant being freely permitted to consult its
The Library of the Writers to the Signet dates from 1722,
when the Society of Writers to her Majesty's Signet set
aside certain funds for the purchase of law-books. It now
forms a general library, to which Mr. Archibald Campbell,
of Succoth, presented a collection of the principal ancient
classics, and contains about 100,000 volumes, exclusive of
pamphlets and tracts. The members of the society are per-
mitted by the rules to borrow volumes from the library
under certain restrictions, and even to extend this privilep-e
to strangers whom they may recommend. The func'- at
the disposal of the society for maintaining the library are
exclusively derived from the entrance fees of its members.
The Library of the Solicitors in the Supreme Courts was
formed in 1808, and the present buildings were opened by
the Lord Justice-General May 12th, 1892, at a cost of
about ;^30,ooo. It contains about 21,000 volumes, and is
chiefly for professional use, and for consultation during
the sitting of the supreme courts. Almost every work
bearing on the law of Scotland is included. The Advocates'
Library, the Signet Library, and the Solicitors' Library are
all located in the Parliament House.
The Library of the Faculty of Actuaries, 24 York place,
was established in 1S56. It contains, besides a large col-
lection of pamphlets, 1,500 volumes exclusively professional
and for reference. The library is maintained by the faculty.
The use and privilege of the library is given to all members
and all matriculated students of the Faculty of Actuaries
and to the members of the Actuarial Society in Edinburgh.
The Hoyal College of Physicians was incorporated by
charter in 168 r. The hall, which is in Queen street, con-
tains a library of about 60,000 volumes.
The Royal College of Surgeons was incorporated in 1505,
and is possessed of a most valuable museum, including Dr.
Barclay's and Mr. Bell's collections of anatomical prepara-
tions. The hall, in Nicolson street, is a noble edifice in
the Classic style, with a portico supported by six fJuted
Ionic columns, and was erected in 1833, at a cost of
;f 20,000.
The Royal Medical Society, 7 Melbourne place, numbers
about 150 members, but there are life members all over the
world. The library contains 30,000 volumes, chieflj^ medi-
cal literature and allied sciences, for the use of members
only, though members of the.medical profession visiting the
city are allowed access to it.
The Philosophical Institution, 4 Queen street, originally
established in 1832 as the Edinburgh Philosophical Associ-
ation, and reorganized in 1846, and again in i88g, affords to
its members the means of acquiring the most recent and
complete information on all mattei-s of general interest,
besides the obtaining of instruction in science, arts, litera-
ture, and the enjoyment of various forms of recreation. The
Institution now possesses most of the advantages of a
literary and social club for ladies and gentlemen, including
news, reading and writing rooms, a ladies' room, smoking
rooms, library, lectures, concerts, whist and golf clubs,
and a musical and dramatic society. The library contains
30,000 volumes, including a valuable collection of books
of reference. W. Addis Miller ji.a. sec. and librarian ; T.
Currie, cashier.
John Watson's Institution, Dean. — In the year 1759, John
Watson, writer to the signet, bequeathed the residue of his
estate to certain trustees, by them to be apphed " to such
pious and charitable uses within the city of Edinburgh as
they shall think proper." In 1822 an Act of parliament was
obtained empowering the trustees to establish and endow
" an hospital for the maintenance and education therein of
destitute children, and bringing them up to be useful
members of society ; and also for assisting in their outset in
life such of them as may be thought tc deserve and require
such aid." The edifice, designed by Mr. William Burn,
was founded in 1825, and completed in 1828. About loo
children, who must be fatherless and of the better classes,
such as clergymen, officers in the army and navy, legal or
medical practitioners, and such like, are here maintained.
The establishment is under the management of fifteen
directors — the keeper and deputy keeper of the signet, the
treasurer of the institution, and twelve commissioners of
the writers to the signet.
Donaldson's Hospital, West Coates. — ^This hospital was
founded by James Donaldson, of Broughton Hall, printer,
who died in Edinburgh in October, 1830, bequeathing to
trustees the greater part of his property, amounting to about
_^200,ooo, for the endowment and erection of a hospital for
the maintenance of poor boys and girls, after the plan of the
Orphan Hospital in Edinburgh and JohnWatson's Institution.
The building, which occupies a commanding position at the
west end of the city, is a large quadrangular structure, in the
Elizabethan style, froin a design by the late W. H. Playfair,
and has large turreted towers at the angles and a projecting
apsidal chapel of late Perpendicular character : it is avail-
able for 226 children, and there are at present (1903) 126
boys and 100 girls, of whom 116 are deaf and dumb. 'Those
eligible for admission are declared to be — ist, " Poor children
of the name of Donaldson or Marshall, if appearing to the
governors to be deserving;" 2nd, "such poor children as
shall appear to be in the most destitute circumstances and
the most deserving of admission." None are received
whose parents are able to support them. The children are
clothed and maintained in the hospital, and taught such
useful branches of a plain English education as will fit the
boys for trades and the girls for obtaining remunerative
employment. There is in connection with the building a
spacious gymnasium.
The Maiden Hospital, Ashfield house, Grange loan. — This
institution was founded in 1704 by the Freemen of the In-
corporated Trades, aided by Mary Erskine, widow of James
Hair, druggist. The governors were incorporated by
statute in 1707. The management is vested in the deacons
of the thirteen incorporations, two trades councillors, two
persons of the name of Erskine, the preses of the Society of
Barbers, and nine persons elected by the other governors,
in all twenty-seven. Fifty-four girls are maintained in the
institution. Those eligible for admission under presenta-
tions held by the Trades Incorporations or the Society of
Barbers of the city of Edinburgh are the daughters, grand-
daughters, or great-granddaughters of freeman or crafts-
men, whom failing, any girl qualified by age and otherwise
presented by the holder of the presentation. On leaving
each girl receives ;^io and a Bible.
John Watt's Hospital, Leith. — The late John Watt, mer-
chant in Leith, by his trust disposition and settlement,
dated 1827, bequeathed the residue of his means and estate
to trustees, with directions for the erection of an hospital in
Leith, to be called "John Watt's Hospital," for the
reception and maintenance of men and women of fifty-five
years of age and upwards who are in destitute circum-
stances, but who are not pensioners or in receipt of an
allowance from any charitable institution except the
Parochial Board of South Leith. The following is the order
of priority : — ist. Persons of the name of Watt ; 2nd,
natives of the parish of South Leith of whatever name ; 3rd,
persons of whatever name who have constantly resided in
the parish of South Leith for at least ten j'ears preceding
their admission ; and 4th, natives of, or persons who have
constantly resided in, the city of Edinburgh or county of
Midlothian. The building, which stands at the south-west
corner of the Links, and was opened in 1862, has now (1903)
been acquired by the Leith School Board, and the recipients
of this charity are at present boarded out among private
Cauvin's Hospital, Duddingston, was founded by Louis
Cauvm, teacher of French in Edinburgh, and afterwards
farmer at Duddingston, who died in 1825, bequeathing his
property for the erection and endowment of "an hospital
for the relief, maintenance, and education of the sons of
respectable but poor teachers, the sons of poor but honest
farmers, whom failing, the sons of respectable master
printers or booksellers, and the sons of respectable servants
in the agricultural line." This settlement was explained
and modified, and the governors incorporated by a parlia-
mentary statute in 1827. The management is in the sur-
vivors of certain individuals nominated by the founder, and
others assumed by them, and in the following ex-officio
trustees, viz., the Lord Provost of the city, the principal of
the University, the rector of the High School, the ministers
of Duddingston, Liberton, and Newton, the proprietor of

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