‹‹‹ prev (1310)

(1312) next ›››

the Dundee Harbour rm the 81st May, 1884, amounted to £852,286
12s. 8d. The progresbive increase ol revenue will appear from the
following statement: —
Shores Does— July, 1815, to July, 1816 ' £4,411
„ May, 1828, to May, 1829 19.134
„ May, 1857, to May, 1858 20,592
„ May, 1869, to May, 1870 27,621 6 5
„ May, 1870, to May, 1871 82,405 14 11
„ May, 1875, to May, 1876 84,532 5 10
„ May, 1876, to May, 1877 38,283 17 11
„ May, 1877, to May, 1878 88,601 Jl 10
„ May, 1878, to May, 1879 84,458 13 6
May, 1879, to Mav, 18S0 85,771 14 11
„ May, 1880, to Mav, 1881 86,759 14 9
„ May, 1882, to May, 1888 85,467 16 10
„ May, 1S83, to May,' 1884 84,461 2 9
The number of vessels which entered the port
In 1885 was 8,981 burthen 259,786 tons.
„ 4,214
„ 4,921
„ 3,815
„ 2,939.
„ 3,088
„ 2,380.
„ 2,559
„ 3,182
„ 3,016
„ 2,672
„ 2,531
„ 2,892
The falling off in the number of vessels and the increase in the
tonnage is explained by the great number of large vessels engaged
in tlie direct trade with Calcutta consequent on the growth of the
jute trade. The number of vessels belonging to the port in 1884
was 191, of the aggregate register of about 115,829 tons. The whale
fishery employs several ships from this port, all fitted with screw
propellers. Steam navigation is successfully conducted by the
Dundee, Perth, and London Shipping Company, whose vessels ply
to London twice a week, and to Hull weekly. These steamships
have obtained a high character for swiftness and excellentaccomino-
dation. There is also regular steam communication with Newcastle
and Liverpool, besides several large steamers engaged exclusively in
the coal trade. Direct steam commnnication is carried on with New
York at irregular intervals, hut a regular line of steamers is talked of.
The earliest articles manufactured in the town seem to have been
soap and glass, which engaged a great number of bands; and the
brewing of ale was carried on to soma extent. The glass manu-
facture has died out, as has also the sugar refining, which was
once carried on. Iu 1866, however, a new branch of manufacture
— that of linseed crushing— was established, and has since been
carried on to a moderate extent. The manufacture of shoe uppers
by the sewing machine was introduced by Messrs. Henderson
(whose tanning and leather works are on a very extensive scale), a
few years ago, and has been very successful. The wholesale shoo
trade which at one time flourished in this town has been recently
revived. There ore two large manufactories employing a consider-
able number of persons, and there is every reason to believe that the
trade has taken firm root in the place. The manufacture of marmalade
has for many years employed alarge number of hands, Dundee mar-
malade being famous throughout the world. Messrs. Keiller & Sons'
establishment is probably the largest in the kingdom, and there are
other firms extensively engaged in the trade. The business of build-
ing ships flourished at an early period, and such an occupation soon
led to the manufacture of cordage, which still remains a branch of
commerce, but not to such an extent as formerly. The manufac-
ture of cotton was once tried, and had the appearance of forming
an important branch in the trade of Dundee, having at one time
seven companies engaged in it; but at length it declined, and
finally died away, in favour of Glasgow. The manufacture of
woollen cloths was next attempted, but met with no success. Out
of these failures arose a spirit for manufacturing goods from flax ;
and, as an encouragement to this branch in its infancy, a bounty
was given by the Government on all linen exported, and a heavy duty
laid on the importation of foreign linens. Whatever the effect of
these enactments, the trade of Dundee continued to increase, and
since the introduction of ihe jute manufacture the progress of the
town has been very great. The following returns of the quantities
of flax, &c, imported in various years since 1745 will show the
progress of the flax trade : —
In 1745, flax 74 tons.
1791, flax 2,444 „
„ hemp 299 „
1835, flax 9,939 „
„ bemp , 6,213 „
„ flax codilla 6,330 ,,
,, hemp codilla 1,192 „
1*36, flax 28,701 „
„ hemp 1,958 „
„ flax codilla 7,873 „
„ hemp codilla 1,931 „
- lS50,flax 25,526 „
„ flax codilla 9,133 „
„ hemp 1,062 „
„ hemp codilla 18 „
1870, flax 23,953 „
„ flax codilla 6,51S „
„ hemp and hemp codilla 1,132 „
1871, flax ■ 88,767 „
„ flax codilla 10,046 „
„ hemp 1,864 „
1881, flax 22,777 „
„ flax codilla 7,611 „
hemp 1,222 „
1884, flax 25,401 „
,. flax codilla 5,879 „
„ hemp 1,258 „
Jute was first brought under the notice of Dundee manufacturers
by the late Thomas Neisb, Esq. As the fibre was hard and difficult
to work, it did not attract much attention at first. With improved
machinery, however, and the discovery of the means of softening
the fibro, jute gradually grew more in favour, until the outbreak of
the civil war in America, though causing a stoppage of the cotton
supply, gave the 'trade an impetus which has since gone on increas-
ing, owing to the cheapness at which cloth can be produced from
the fibre, and its usefulness for various important purposes. At
first the fibre was imported in small quantities to London and
Liverpool, and thence transhipped to Dundee. As the trade grew
in importance, however, manufacturers began to import direct from
Calcutta, and the direct imports now greatly exceed the importation
into London. Most of the jute received in Liverpool and London
also finds its way to Dundee. In 1849, the imports (exclusive of
coast-ways) amounted to 8,176 tons; in 1850, 8,127 tons were received.
In 1865, the receipts at the harbour, both coast-ways and from
Calcutta, reached 36,291 tons. Since then the importation has gone
on in an increasing ratio. To give an idea of the expansion of the
trade, we give the following returns for the years ending Slst
December, 1870, 1875, 1876, 1884:—
1870. 1875. 1876. 1884.
Direct from Calcutta tons 30,537 .. 92,844 .. 95,709 .. 153,015
Coasting (principally) ^ 3il 2 0,067 .. 20,502 .. 25,381
from London ) J " '
Byrailway „ 7,862.. 1,019.. 1,032.. 1,892
Total „ 81,740 ..113,920 ..117,243 .. 180,2SS
The only other imports from foreign countries to which attention
need be directed aro timber and whale and seal blubber. In 1876,
46,256 loads of timber arrived at the port, and in 1884, 48,922. The
whale and seal blubber imported in 1876 reached 1,694 tons, and in
1884, 2,415 tons. The exports of manufactured goods from the har-
bour by no means represent tho extent of business done in the
town, the larger portion of the manufactured goods being sent by
rail to Glasgow and Liverpool for exportation to the United States,
South America, Australia, &c. The total quantity of linen and jute
goods sent by rail from the town in the year 1868 was 71,400 tons ;
in 1869, 75,570 tons ; iu 1875, 72,518 tons ; in 1876, 56,667 tons ; and in
1884, 76,283. During the past few years the staple trade of the town,
in sympathy with the general trade of the country, has been in a
very depressed condition. Fifty years ago, there were only
four steam spinning mills; there are now probably above one hun-
dred, including spinning and weaving factories. The various
productions from flax, hemp, and jute, as has been stated, form
the staple trade of the town. The raw materials are imported
chiefly from Russia, Prussia, Holland, and India; these are
spun by steam power into thread, which, after being bleached,
are woven into osuaburghs, sheetings, baggings, sailcloth,
sacking, dowlas, &c. During the year 1850 the trade of Dundee
became animated by augmenting briskness, showing that
free trade had increased the prosperity of this important port.
At the commencement of the civil war in America, as has been said,
the trade of Dundee increased to a most extraordinary extent,
fabrics of jute and linen being in great demand to take the place of
cotton. Almost every mill received additions, and a large number
of new mills were erected. The manufacture of machinery, steam
engines, boilers, and millwright work is in a nourishing condition
and carried on extensively by several eminent firms, among whom
may be mentioned Messrs. Carmichael & Co., Ward Foundry;
Thomson, Son & Co., Douglas Foundry ; TJrquhart, Lindsay & Co.,
Blackness Foundry; W. B. Thompson, Tay Foundry; Gourlay,
Brothers & Co., Dundee Foundry; Pearce Brothers, Lilybank
Foundry; and Robertson and Orchar, Wallace Foundry, Iron ship
building and marine engineering are also important features in the
general prosperity and; industry of the town, and give employment
to a large number of artisans. Messrs. Gourlay Brothers & Co,,
Messrs. Alexander Stephen and Sons, Mr. W. B. Thompson, and
Messrs. Pearce Brothers, are the principal firms engaged in these
important industries. There are also several extensive saw mills
and timber yards, the principal of which belong to Messrs. W. Kirk-
land & Son, Mr. George Jessimau, Messrs. Bell & Sime, and Mr.
John Fleming.
Descriptive Sketch of Dundee.— Although Dundee is not
conspicuous for architectural beauty it contains several hand-
some streets. The town is illuminated with gas, tho manufac-
ture of which is in the hands of the corporation. The water-
supply is also in the Bame hands, the principal supply being
obtained from the Loch of Lintrathum and the river Melgam. The
greater part of the mansions of the opulent aro ranged on the
lofty bank of the Tay, westward of the town. This situation
commands a view of the river, and the beautiful scenery on the
opposite coast. In the central part of the town is a wide oblong
area, called the High street, on the south side of which stands
the Town House, comprising the Guild Hall, Court Room, and
appropriate offices, together with repositories for the town records.
The Town House was finished in 1734, from a plan of the elder
Adams. The front is handsome, beneath which is a piazza; and
from the centre of the buiding rises a lofty spire, 140 feet high.
A large addition has been made to the building, with the view
of accommodating all the public ofiices, at present somewhat
scattered. A little to the east of the High street rises the lofty
and elegant spire of St. Paul's Episcopal church. This beautiful
church, unfortunately not seen to advantage owing to the close
proximity of the adjoining buildings, is built on the Caatle hill, near
to the site of the ancient castle. The church is in the Gothic style,
from designs by Mr. Gilbert Scott, and the spire has been fitted up
with a peal of bells, the gift of various members of the congregation.
To the zoal and cultivated taste of the late Bishop Forbes the >town
owes this addition to its too scant architectural beauties. An ele-
gant building has been erected by the Clydesdale Bank, Limited, at
the east end of High street, in connection with the improvements
carried out by the corporation in that quarter. New Commercial
street is a splendid thoroughfare, lined on either side by elegant
shops and houses, and the old narrow dingy Murraygate and Seagate
have given place to wider streets. The Public Hall, in Bank street
(for which the inhabit an of Dundee are mainly indebted to Lord
Kinnaird), was an excellent addition to the public buildings of this
town. It is in the Anglo-Italian style of architecture, and its

Images and transcriptions on this page, including medium image downloads, may be used under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence unless otherwise stated. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence