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SCOTLAND is extri?mely irregular In its figure, and is separated on the s.e. by the Solway Frith and tlie Cheviot Hills from Englaiid.
It is so broken up by pronioutories projecting far into the sea, and by friths, or arms of the sea, deeply indenting the land, that thcr-..
Hve few points which are more than torty miles from salt water— a great proportion of the interior lying within thirty miles of the sea.
A line drawn on the mainland of Scotland, from the most southerly point of the Mull of Galloway, in lat. 54 dog. 38 min. x. to DuDnet
Head, its most northerly point, in lat. 54 deg. 40 min. SO sec. is ivbou; liS) mllas in leagbh. Its bre.idth i3 extremely various, in con-
ecqueuce of the deep indentations produced by tlie friths. Taking the extreme breadth, however, of the solid part of the mainland— via ,
from Bucbau Ness point, nu the Aberdeensliire coast, to Ko.vannioan Point, on the west coast of Ross-shire, the distance is about 146.
In the southern portion of Scotland, from St- Abb's Head, in Berwickshire, to the point of Knapp, in Argj-loshire, the distance is about
1:.9 miles ; on the other hand, the breadth of the inland between some of the friths is very small. Thus, between Alloa, on the Frilh of
Forth, on the east coast, and Dumbarton, on the Frith of Clyde, on the west coast, the distance is only !32 miles ; while from Loch
Broom, on the west coast, to the Frith of Dornoch, on the east' coast, the breadth is only 24 miles. The superficial contents are com-
puted to bo 30,463 square iuiles, or 19,40(3,132 statute acres, of which only 4,450,579 were under crop, in the bare fallow, or in grass— tlmt
is to say, that only 22'8 per cent, of the acreage of Scotland was under cultivation.
Early History. — The most early mention made of this portion of Britain by any historian is by Tacitus, who flourished about ou^
hundred years after Chriat. The original population seems to have consisted of Cimhrians, from the Cimbric Chersonese, tlie nioder.--
Jullaud. About two centuries before the Christian era, the Cimhrians appear to have; been driven to the south of Sootlaod by Ihr
Caledonians or Picts, a Gothic colony from Norway. Tacitus denominates the country Caledonia: Die Venerable Bede, who wrol'::
about the year 700, names the country the Province of the Picts; and Alfred the Great, who translated his history into the Anglo Sasf^a
tongue, about the year 8«2, called the people Piohts, and their country Piohtland. From the Picts, then, or Piohts, probably origina' -.
the population of the Lowlands, the Lowlanders having been, in all ages, a tiistiuct people from those of the westex'n Highlands. '»'•.
the tenth and eleventh c:;nturics, tho uamo of Scotiii, previously applied to Ireland, was given to modern Scotland, by which tit' • ■
is designated by Adam of Bremen. About 258 years after Christ, the Dalraids of Eede, the Attacotti of the Roman writers, passru. jr
ro-passcd from"lreland into Argyleshiro, and "became the progenitors of the Scottish Highlanders, who speak the Irish or /.c'' .■'■
language, while the Lowlanders have always used- the Scandinavian or Gothic. Fergus I., who is supposed to have reigned abi ui ^xi
years before Christ, is said to be tlie founder of the Scottish monarchy. From him, till the year 1006, there are reckoned eigH> ..vj
kijij:^; ; after which, till Britain became subject to one monarch, the succession waa as follows : — IMalcolm II: Duncan I; Macbealii ':.
'.laebethl: UlalccImHr; Donald VII; Duncanll; Edgar; Alexander I ; Davidl; Malcolm IV; William; Alexander II; Alciaudc r JJ t ;
•lohn Baiiol; Robert Bruce: Edwr»rd Baliol: David II ; Robert II; Robert III; James I; James II; James III: James IV ; JaiiU.- V ,
Mary ; James VI. In X60.S, on the death of t^usen Elizabeth, James VI. of Scotland ascended the English throne, and constantly l - -: ,1
in England; he and Ida successors calling themselves kings of England and Scotland, and each country having a sepnrato pari- ni,^,,^.
xiil, in Lh^year 1707, daring the reign of Queen Anne, both kingdoms were united under the general name of Great Britain.
ctrRFAc;;, (JbidiATK, Ac. — Th'^ most remarkable, and, perhaps, the most distinctive feature of Scotland is her mountain^. The
principal ones are 'the Grampian hills, which run from east to west — from near Aberdeen to Cowal in Argyleshire, almost the whole
breadth of the kingdom. Another chain of mountains, called the Pentland hills, runs through Lothian, and joins those of Tweedalo. A
third, called Lammermuir, rises near the eastern coast, and runs westward through the Merse. Besides the cc-ntinued chains, «monjf
which may be reckoned the Che.viol or Teviot hills, on the borders of England, Scotland contaius many detached mountains, sotuo uf
them of stupendous heighr. BeiVHevis, in loverness, the highest mountain in Scotland, is 4,.B70 feet above the level of the sea ; Ciiirii-
gorni, in Banff, Ben Lnwers, in Portlr,-Bfaeriach, in Aberdeen, and some others, are not much inferior in altitude. The general surfnee
of the country is aiugiilarly ii-x-egular, being,; o!i the' whole, hilly or raounLaUious, more especially the northern district, which comp'^e-
heuds nearly tw^-thlrda oi' Scotland, and forms what is called the Highlands, extending from Dumbarton nearly to the extremity u' tho
islaftd, about 200 miles. Nothing can be more awful to a stranger than the aijpcarance of the Highlands, where dus!;y mountains risu
above each other, and lose their heads in the clouds; v.^ljile the tremendous rocks fill the mind with dismay, heightened in no srr.:dl
degree by the noise of iiu:nberless torrents, which pour down their steep sides. The gloomy vales and glens below — narrow, deep, and
dark— add subUmity to the scene. The Lowlanda, nr Ihat part of Scotland not included v/ithin the district of tlie Highlands, may be
said to compiise th'e^brtion which lies between V.v ■■"riths of Tay and Clyde, and extends southward to the English frontier, and
nearly the whrde" of Forfarshire. In this division th' proportion of cultivated land is very considerable, exhibiting, in many parts,
verdant plains, watered by copious streams, and covered with innumerable cattle ; in others, pleasing vicissitudes of gently rising hills
and bending vales, waving with corn, well wooded, and interspersed with flowery meadows. Situated in the midst of tho ocean; and in
a l;igh northern latitude, Scothmd cannctt boast of a regular climate. It is various, too, in different places ; the cold, however, is not so
:ntonsa as it is in similar latitudes on the continent. The thermometer does not sink so low during the winter as it does iu th-.- vicinity
of London. Mountainous countries are always most subject to rain ; and Great Britain being a sort of inclined plain, gradutil'y ficciin-
ing from west to east, it has been thought that, on this account, the western coast is more wet. This excess of rain is, perhaps, rather
owing to the prevalence of the west wind, which brings humidity witli it in its course across the Atlantic ; henco we lind that muro rain
generally falls at Greenock than at Glasgow, and more at Glasgow than at Edinburgh. As a counterbalance to this, vegetation gti tho
eastern coast is checked during the sin-iug months by cold and in piercing east winds. Notwithstanding all this, the air is in gLUcral
pure and healthy.
The wild animals are the fox, the badger, the otter, the red deer, the wild roe, the hare, and the rabbit; besides the wild cftt. the
hedgehog, weasel, squirrel mole, &c. There is also proof of othei-s having existed in the country, which are now exterminated, nnpit)-.-.
the buffalo or wild or., the wolf, and the beaver. Of the feathered tribe, pheasants are to be found in the woods, though sc't^r^ : 'j',^,:
that rare and beautiful bird called caiiercailzie, or cock of the wood. The ptarmigan, black game, and grouse iuhabit tho uLvt;iy
mountains : in the valleys are partridges ; in the fens, the snipe and plover, and in the plains, most ol the English singing birds, --xrept
tlie nightingale.
Rivers, Lakes, and Railways.- The country abounds with rivers and lakes, which are in general very pure and transpari^^.S, . '■-l
abound with dsh. Most of tho rivers have a short course from the mountuias to the sea, and are consequently very rapi*. 'i ;. :
principal are the Tweed, Forth, Clyde, Tay, and Spcy, of which tho Tay is tho largest: they all abound with tine salmon and *r:>xU.
The lakes of Scotland are grand and bciutifiil, and soia;^ of tht.'ai o!" consUl'erablo extent ; their banks are in general cluthsd with wri'nL
and the scenery is highly picturesque and pleasing. Of these Loch Lomond is the cliief, hotV- in extent and beauty, diversified n'. ■
number of small romantic woody islands, and begirt with shores in some plac^JS decorated witli wood, in others naked and mr.joe- 1*.':.
Xext to it may be ranked Loch Ness, whose waters never freeze; Lceh Tay, Loch Awe, Loch Katrine, Loch Earn, Loch Lev<-;. a.';il
many otiiers, are deserving of the traveller's attention. It is worthy of remark, that the name of loch or lahe is t^iven, on the v.^.'■.■.i■T^^
coast, to mpny inlets or arms of the sea. Throughout the whole (extent of coast there are lino fisheries, which employ a vast nni::'-,>'-r '.■'■■
hands, and furnish a hardy and skilii;! race of seamen for the British navy ; VN'hile her bleak mountains were esteemed, in more re .; t t
times, as an excellent nursery lor brave and hardy soldiers. Railways, &c — This northern portion of the United Kingdom ha^ suo-
fully emulated the more southern, its facilities of intercommunication with various distant districts — Xiiver, Road, Canal, and ' il
lending their respective aids to effect the accomplishment of this great object ; and this last-named has of late years taken a 'l i
prominent and valuable part in this department of the " Country's good," by opening up a rapid means of intercourse with ahnoat o ;-. " y
part of the country-. It would be superfluous to give here a list of the railways in operation and progress, every place visited by i: --
being specially noticed throughout Iho work, ' ,
Commerce, Manufactures, Minerals, &c.— Scotland produces many v;iiuablo articles of commerce:^ bosidi.s the trad: in
corn, the rearing of black cattle and sheep for the English market is very considerable. Great attention is paid to tho hreo '. ■■'•
Mack cattle; while the horses and sheep, originally small, now rival those of England. I^-S woods of oak and fir are considered ..il'
proper attention, and made serviceable to the navy." The mines of coal, lead, andiron have long been sources ot wealth, as have :■
stone, limestone, and slate, which are found in various places, and in great abundance. The manufacture of paralhu and other c
recently been introduced into several parts, and bids fair to bc'Como one of the staple products of the country. Some attontio.-i i
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