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imbraice our religione’. When Robert Buchanan of Leny sought a
further adjournment as the culprit ‘hade bot varie laitlie sein the said
confessione of fayth and thairfor was nocht weill advysit thairwith’,
the presbytery agreed, ‘willing rather to win the said Waltir than to
los him’. Further delays ensued, month by month, as the presbytery
exhorted him to ‘frequent the kirk in tyme of service, speciallie in
tyme of preichein’ (which he failed so to do, professedly because
‘ thais pairttis of Kippen quhair he dwellis is undir sic feir of brokin
heland men’) until in April 1587 the presbytery, its patience almost
exhausted, threatened to excommunicate him ‘as ane papeist refusar
to profes our religione, agreing with the Word of God’. Undeterred,
he declined even to have his child baptised ‘ according to the ordur
approvit be the reformit kirk of Scotland’. His empty promise ‘to
depart schortlie furth of this cuntrie’ delayed the final sentence of
excommunication till 1588 when the presbytery declared him
‘obstinat and indurit in papistrie’. Action was also taken against his
brother, the laird of Arnprior, who had ‘ declairit him self in sindrie
partis to be ane papeist and hes rassonit for defence of the heresie
thairof’.1 By then, however, fears of a counter-Reformation had
reached new heights as the Armada crisis threatened England.
There is, however, little indication in the presbytery records of
the detection of lay recusants in the burgh of Stirling itself. When a
tailor was remitted from the kirk session to the presbytery for trial,
the minister and grammar schoolmaster of Stirling had discussions
with him ‘anent the cheiffheddis of religioun’ but it was soon dis¬
covered that ‘he willinglie aggreit with all heddis of the trew
religioun of Jesus Christ professit in Scotland and (as appeirit to
thame) he was nocht obstinat and that the wordis that he had
spokin in menteinance of the mes was mair of ignorance nor
uthirwayis’. Nonetheless, the presbytery insisted in 1584 that he
subscribe the Negative Confession of Faith and that he ‘rys on his
feit’ before the congregation of Stirling to ‘confes that he hes
offendit God in geving of his corporall presens to the mes in France
and in speiking in this toun in menteinance thairof, and that he
publictlie dam the samin and all papistrie in generall’. In 1583,
however, Robert Veich, ‘sumtym gwarden of the Gray freiris in
1 See below, 235-43, 245~7, 250, 256, 260-1, 265-6, 284-5, 299, 305-7, 310-11; 300,

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