Innealan-ciùil : A’ Phìob

Illustration of a Clarsach
Seall barrachd
Pibroch
Pibroch (Library shelfmark: H.M.317)

’S ann aig a’ phìob a tha an aithne as motha mar ionnsramaid Albannach. Bha a’ phìob ann an Alba co-dhiù cho tràth ris na meadhan-aoisean, ach tha pìoban de dh’iomadh cruth air a bhith ann an iomadh dùthaich bho chionn fhad an t-saoghail.

Seòrsachan pìoba ann an Alba

Tha dà sheòrsa pìoba ann an Alba: a’ phìob mhòr agus a’ phìob bheag. Buinidh a’ phìob mhòr ris a’ Ghàidhealtachd agus dùthchas mòr nan cinnidhean dham bu dual a’ phìob. Tha dà sheòrsa pìoba bige – pìob bheag a tha coltach ris a’ phìob mhòr, ’s i ga cleachdadh, mar eisimpleir, do dhannsa fo chabair an taighe, agus pìob bheag nan Gall.

A’ cur na pìoba gu feum

Dh’fhastadh pìobairean leis na cinn-chinnidh, gan cur gu feum a’ caismeachd gu cath no air tòrraidhean no bainsean no an leithid. An dèidh do chrìonadh seann saoghal nan cinnidhean an dèis Bliadhna Theàrlaich, thòisicheadh gum bìte a’ cur na pìoba gu feum air adhbharan nas neo-fhoirmeile, mar a bhios fhathast an-diugh. ’S e ceòl beag as motha a chluinnear an-diugh – puirt a tha math gu caismeachd, dannsa, agus eile. Tha ceòl mòr ga chluinntinn ann an suidheachaidhean nas foirmeile, a’ gabhail a-steach farpaisean agus tachartasan sònraichte.

Ceòl Beag

Glen’s collection for the great highland bagpipe
Cruinneachadh Glen don phìob mhòr

Tha ceòl beag a’ gabhail a-steach òrain agus puirt do dhannsa, mar a tha srath-spè, ruidhle, port-cruinn, caismeachd, agus port-à-beul. ’S e ceòl beag as tric a chluinnear air an t-sràid, no aig pìobairean agus còmhlan-pìoba, agus iad fiù ’s a’ cur a leithid ri ‘Caledonia’ air a’ phìob.

Tha ceòl beag ann an ‘Cruinneachadh Glen don phìob mhòr’ agus bha fèill air mar chruinneachadh a chaidh fhoillseachadh leis na pìobadairean Iain agus Raibeart Glen. Comharra-sgeilpe: Cam.1/g/16 (1890/1900 ed).

Ceòl Mòr

Blar sliabh an t-shirra
Blar sliabh an t-shirra

Tha ceòl mòr – no ‘pìobaireachd’ mar a thathar a’ gabhail air sa Bheurla – nas toinnte, a’ leantail structar a tha nas foirmeile. Thàinig cuid mhòr dheth sìos tro na ginealaichean an cois chinnidhean de phìobairean mar a tha MacCruimein, pìobairean do Shìol Tormoid, MacLeòid Dhùn Bheagain.

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Tha diofar sheòrsachan ann, a’ gabhail a-steach:

  • Fàilte
  • Cruinneachadh
  • Cumha

Tha fuinn catha ann cuideachd, mar a tha ‘Battle of Sheriffmuir/Blar Sliabh an t-shirra’ [sic] (comharra-sgeilpe: Glen.354).

Bidh a’ chuid a bu mhotha de phìosan a’ togail air fonn ùrlair, agus siubhlaichean a’ leantail na dhèidh:

  1. Ùrlar (am fonn bunaiteach a bhios a’ ruith tron cheòl)
  2. Siubhal, no Dithis (a’ chiad atharrachadh air an Ùrlar)
  3. Taorluath (atharrachadh eile a tha nas luaithe)
  4. Crùnluath (atharrachadh deireannach a tha as luaithe, mus tillear chun an Ùrlair)
Collection of the ancient martial music of Caledonia, called Piobaireachd
Collection of the ancient martial music of Caledonia, called Piobaireachd

Tha fo-earranan aig gach siubhal (m.e. a-mach, a-steach, breabach).

Tha grunn leabhraichean ionnsachaidh ann an cruinneachadh na Leabharlainn, cuid a tha an lùib chruinneachaidhean ceòl na pìoba mar a tha ‘Collection of the ancient martial music of Caledonia, called Piobaireachd’, le Dòmhnall Dòmhnallach (comharra-sgeilpe: Glen.298).

Pìobaireachd an latha an-diugh

Bidh pìobaireachd a’ nochdadh ann an diofar àiteachan ann an Alba:

  • Busgadh air an t-sràid (pìobaire leis fhèin a’ seinn ceòl beag)
  • Còmhlan-pìoba (a’ seinn ceòl beag mar as àbhaist)
  • Bainsean no tòrraidhean no an leithid (ceòl beag agus mòr)
  • Farpaisean agus fèisean (Farpaisean Pìobaireachd na Cruinne, Piping Live)
  • Foghlam (a’ gabhail a-steach Colaiste na Pìobaireachd agus Ionad Nàiseanta na Pìobaireachd ann an Glaschu)

Dòighean air ceòl na pìoba a sgrìobhadh

Murt Ghlinne A Comhann…
Murt Ghlinne A Comhann…

Tha sgrìobhadh-ciùil ann do cheòl na pìoba. Mar eisimpleir air seo, tha ‘Murt Ghlinne Comhann” às cruinneachadh Glen (comharra-sgeiple: Glen 354).

Canntaireachd

Tha canntaireachd na dòigh air ceòl a riochdachadh, a’ gabhail a-steach ceòl na pìoba. Tha lideadh a’ sònrachadh nòta air neo nòtaichean (mar eisimpleir sgeadachaidhean chiùil). Ged a ghabhas a sgrìobhadh, as motha ’s e dòigh teagaisg labhairte a th’ innte, agus thèid cuid de dh’oileanaich ionnsachadh le canntaireachd.

‘Canntaireachd Fir Gheusto’: pìos cudromach bho chruinneachaidhean na Leabharlainn

‘Air na pìobairean uile, b’ e MacCruimein an rìgh’; b’ e clann ’icCruimein, a bhuineadh don Eilean Sgitheanach, a rinn deagh chuid den cheòl mhòr. Bha Iain Dubh MacCruimein a’ còmhnaidh san eilean gu 1822. B’ ann bhuaithe a thug Niall MacLeòid, Fear Gheusto a bha titheach air ceòl na pìoba, sìos a’ channtaireachd, agus dh’fhoillsich e 20 pìos ann an 1828.

The page shown here is from the original 1828 edition of Neil MacLeod’s publication, also known as the ‘Gesto Canntaireachd’ (Library shelfmark Mus.D.s.138)
Tha an duilleag an seo às a’ chiad fhoillseachadh de Chruinneachadh Fir Gheusto ann an 1828 (no ‘Gesto Canntaireachd’ ann am Beurla; comharra-sgeilpe Mus.D.s.138).
 ‘Iseabal Nic Aoidh. Isabel Mackay’
Iseabal Nic Aoidh. Isabel Mackay

Ann an coimeas ri sin, seo ceòl sgrìobhte san dòigh choitcheann den aon cheòl, foillsichte ann an 1838 ann an ‘A Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd or Highland Pipe Music le Aonghas MacAoidh (comharra-sgeilpe Glen.354).

Bhuineadh an lethbhreac de Channtaireachd Fir Gheusto a th’ aig Leabharlann dha Sir Iain Greum Dalyell, agus an uair sin Iain Òg Ìle, dithist reul-iùil ann an eachdraidh dualchas na Gàidhealtachd. Tha a luach air a thogail gu mòr le làmh-sgrìobhainn sam bheil fiosrachadh mu na puirt a rinn Niall MacLeòid, Fear Gheusto – làmh-sgrìobhainn a shaoileadh gun robhas air chall.

Barrachd leughadh

  • Robert Menzies (Capt). The Bagpipe Preceptor; or, The art of playing the great Highland bagpipe rendered perfectly easy to every capacity ... To which are added a few favourite simple airs, etc. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1818. Library shelfmark: Mus.Box.q.59.4
  • Tom and Valerie Byran. Ullapool. Music of Lochbroom and Coigach - past and present. 1988. Library shelfmark: Mus.D.s.59
  • William Bryson. The Edcath collection of Highland Bagpipe music. Compiled by William Bryson. Book 3. Edinburgh: Hugh Macpherson, 1968. Library shelfmark: Mus.Box.q.180.5
  • Archie M Cairns Pipe Major. Canadian Forces Pipe Band Manual. Compiled /composed / arranged by Pipe Major A H Cairns and Master Warrant Officer J B Kerr. Department of National Defence: Ottawa, 1979. Library shelfmark: MH.183
  • Archibald Campbell. The Kilberry book of Ceol Mor. Glasgow, 1948. Library shelfmark: Mus.D.I.22. Fifth edition. Glasgow,1980: MH.204
  • William Connell. Ceol-Mor. A self tuition book written in authentic Cameron style of playing. Book 1. 1980. Library shelfmark: Mus.Box.643.1.
  • William Connell. Teach Yourself to Play the Great Highland Bagpipe. A complete self-tuition method. Book 1. Willie Connell. Library shelfmark: MH.v.438 and corresponding cassette: M.Cas.110
  • Simon Fraser.The Piobaireachd of Simon Fraser, with canntaireachd. Compiled and edited by Dr B J Maclachlan Orme. Second edition. B J Maclachlan Orme? Burwood, 1985. Library shelfmark: Mus.Box.718.9
  • Glasgow Piobaireachd Society / Comunn na Piobaireachd. The Piobaireachd Society present a Collection of Ceol Mor composed during the twentieth century, 1930-1980. Piobaireachd Society: Glasgow, 1980. Library shelfmark: MH.v.392
  • Glasgow Piobaireachd Society / Comunn na Piobaireachd.The Kilberry Book of Ceol Mor. By Archibald Campbell. Glasgow, 1948. Note: The first two books are in staff and canntaireachd notations. Library shelfmark: Mus.D.l.22 Glasgow Royal Scottish Pipe Band Association. Royal Scottish Pipe Band Association. Tutor and Text Book [for the Highland Bagpipe] RSPB Ass. Glasgow, 1986. Library shelfmark: Mus.D.s.29
  • Alexander Glen. The Caledonian Repository of Music, for the great Highland Bag-pipe. A new collection of marches, quicksteps, strathspeys & reels, consisting of 100 tunes, etc. Edinburgh, 1860. Library shelfmark: MH.s.247 plus other editions
  • David Glen. [A Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd nos 83, 86, 89, 95, 96, 98]. [Bagpipe solo]. Edinburgh, 1896. Library shelfmark: MH.v.410-MH.v.415
  • David Glen. A Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd or Highland Bagpipe Music ... Arranged and revised by David Glen. Edinburgh, 1880. Library shelfmarks: Mus.D.I.5. and another edition, [enlarged.]: Mus.Box.51.55-58
  • David Glen. David Glen's Collection of Highland Bagpipe Music, etc. Part First-Eleventh. Third edition. Edinburgh, c.1893-99. Library shelfmark: MH.s.250(2-11)
  • David Glen. David Glen's Highland Bagpipe Tutor, with a selection of quicksteps, strathspey, reels and jigs amounting to 50 tunes. Edin., 1881. Library shelfmark: Mus.K.s.3(9)
  • John and Robert Glen. Glen's Collection for the Great Highland Bagpipe, containing instructions & ... airs, etc. 3 pt. (in 1). Edin., [c.1870] . Note: Pt.2 is of another edition, has the titlepage of pt.1, and contains some extra numbers not in the index. It is wanting pp.5-12. Library shelfmark: Glen.51
  • Thomas Macbean Glen. [A New and Complete Tutor for the Highland Bagpipe. Book II]. [Thomas Glen: Edin., c.1840]. Note: Wanting the titlepage and pp.1-26. Library shelfmark: MH.v.423
  • Thomas Macbean Glen. A New and Complete Tutor for the Great Highland Bagpipe. To which are added a collection of the most favourite Scotish airs. Second edition. 2 vol. Edin., [1870?] Library shelfmarks: Glen 27(2-3); Mus.D.s.41
  • Army Piping Committee. Army Manual of Bagpipe Tunes and Drum Beatings. Music for massed pipes and drums. 2 bk.London: Paterson's Publication, [1934-36.] Library shelfmarks: MH.8.118; MH.8.119; Mus.D.s.33.7; Mus.D.s.33. 8
  • Queen's Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons). The Cabar Feidh Collection. Pipe music of the Queens Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons). London: Paterson's Publications, 1984. Library shelfmarks: Mus.D.s.20; Mus.D.s.60
  • Queen's Own Highlanders. The Piper's Day. Regimental duty tunes of the Queen's Own Highlanders. Prepared by the Regimental Pipe Music Committee>. Invernes: Queen's Own Highlanders, 1991. Library shelfmark: Mus.D.l.81
  • Scots Guards. Standard Settings of Pipe Music, 1954. London: Paterson, [c.1955]. Library shelfmark: MH.s.278
  • William Gunn. The Caledonian Repository of Music, adapted for the bagpipes, being a collection of strathspeys, reels, jigs & quicksteps, to which is prefixed, a copious illustration of the principles of music. (4th edition, with additions.) Glasgow, 1867. Library shelfmarks: Glen.75; Mus.D.s.43 [1848 ed] MH.v.422.
  • Archibald C. Kenneth. Ceol Beag. Compositions and arrangements. Edin.: J.. & R. Glen:, [n.d.]. Library shelfmarks: MH.s.190; Mus.D.s.64 Mus.Box.q.278.8.
  • Logan's Collection of Highland Bagpipe Music. Containing marches, quicksteps, strathspeys, reels, hornpipes and jigs. 8 bks. Glasgow: Paterson's Publications, [c.1919.] Library shelfmarks: MH.s.127; MH.s.128; 8 (in 1) Mus.D.s.44(2-9)
  • Logan's Collection of Highland Bagpipe Music. Containing marches, quicksteps, strathspeys, reels, hornpipes and jigs. Book 1. Inverness: Logan & Coy., [c.1905]. Library shelfmark: MH.s.270; MH.s.230
  • Donald Macdonald. A Collection of the Ancient Martial Music of Caledonia, Piobaireachd, as performed on the Great Highland Bagpipe. Now also adapted to the piano forte, violin and violoncello...To which is prefixed a complete tutor, etc. Edin., [c.1820.] Library shelfmark: Glen.298; Mus.D.s.33(5)
  • Joseph Macdonald. A Compleat Theory of the Scots Highland Bagpipe, etc. Edinburgh: For Patrick McDonald , 1803. Library shelfmark: MH.220.
  • Patrick Macdonald. A Collection of Highland Vocal Airs, never hitherto published. To which are added...country dances or reels of the North Highlands & Western Isles: and some specimens of bagpipe music. Edin., [1784.] Library shelfmarks: Ing.157; Glen.383
  • Angus Mackay. A Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd or Highland Pipe Music, many of the pieces being adapted to the Piano Forte, with full instructions for ... performing on this national instrument. To which are prefixed some sketches of the principal hereditary pipers and their establishments, with historical & traditional notes [by James Logan], etc. Edin., 1838. Library shelfmark: Glen.354
  • Angus Mackay. The Piper's Assistant. A collection of marches, quicksteps, strathspeys, reels and jigs. Consisting of 155 tunes. Edin., [1840?] Library shelfmark: Glen.36.
  • Angus Mackay. The Tutor for the Highland Bagpipe, with a selection of marches, quicksteps, strathspeys, reels and jigs ... 7th edition, 1873. Edin.: David Glen, 1878. Library shelfmark: MH.s.181
  • John MacLennan. The Piobaireachd as MacCrimmon played it, etc. Edinburgh: J. McLennan, [c.1907]. Library shelfmark: MH.216
  • Neil MacLeod of Gesto. A Collection of Piobaireachd or Pipe Tunes as verbally taught by the McCrummen Pipers in the Isle of Skye to their apprentices, etc.] Edin., 1828. With authograph notes by Neil MacLeod of Gesto. Library shelfmark: Mus.D.s.138
  • D. Mathieson and W. Logie. Seaforth Highlanders. Standard settings of pipe music. London: Paterson's Publication: Edin., [1936.] Library shelfmark: MH.s.107.
  • Paterson Sons & Co. Bagpipe Music. Paterson's catalogue of Highland Bagpipe Music. Paterson's Publications: Glasgow, [c.1926]. Library shelfmark: MH.s.83
  • Thogail nam Bo'. Theid sinn, Piobaireachd Chloinn Pharlain. Clan-Farlane's Pibroch. Henry Whyte: Glasgow, n.d. Library shelfmark: MH.v.417.
  • Donald Struan Robertson. Scots Guards. Standard settings of pipe music. London: Paterson's Publications, [1965.] Library shelfmark: Mus.D.s.12
  • James Robertson. Pipe Major. How to Play the Highland Bagpipe. (Revised edition.) With a selection of quicksteps, strathspeys, reels and jigs compiled & arranged by Pipe Major Jas. Robertson ... including Piobaireachd by Chalum MacCrimmon. Lond., 1946. Library shelfmark: Mus.Box.q.50.4
  • William Ross. Piper to Queen Victoria. Ross's Collection [of] Pipe Music. London: [For the composer], [1869.] Library shelfmarks: MH.104; Glen.332
  • Scottish Pipe Band Association. Structural Learning: The RSPBA Complete Guide to Piping and Drumming Certification. Book 1: The elementary certificate. Book 2: The intermediate certificate. [Edinburgh]: [Royal Scottish Pipe Band Association], 1990, 1991. Library shelfmarks: Mus.D.l.83
  • R.T. Shepherd. Learn to play the Bagpipe. A new method of practice chanter tuition. Kintail: Loch Lomond, [c.1935] . Library shelfmark: MH.249
  • Charles Simeon Thomason. Ceol Mor Notation. A new and abbreviated system of musical notation for the piobaireachd as played on the Highland bagpipe, with examples. [Facsimile reprint.] pp.xi.13.400.xiv. E.P. Publishing: Wakefield, 1975. Various editions. Library shelfmarks: MH.146; MH.s.236; MH.s.237
  • Gordon J. Mooney. A Tutor for the Cauld Wind Bagpipes. Applicable to Lowland pipes, Border pipes, Northumbrian half-long bagpipes and Scottish smallpipes. Linlithgow: Lowland and Borders Pipers Society, [1985]. Library shelfmarks: Mus.Box.718.15; Mus.D.l.71
  • Ian Chrichton.Puirt a Eilean Leodhais. Tunes from the Isle of Lewis. Composed by Ian Crichton. A Collection of Scottish music for Accordion, Fiddle and Bagpipes. Isle of Lewis: Ian Crichton, 1992. Library shelfmark: Mus.Box.832.12
  • Derek Scott. The Isle of Skye (original and traditional tunes for the Highland bagpipe). Heddon: Da Capo Music Ltd., 1992. Library shelfmark: Mus.Box.833.6