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36                                         VACCINATION REPORT.

tion of animal for human lymph. In Bombay city, where only animal lymph
is used, the cost of each successful case was Rs. 1-1-10. If animal vaccina-
tion be carried out in the districts with a widely dispersed population often of
difficult access owing to creeks, hills and rivers, the cost per case would be
even greater than in the city of Bombay, where the population is concentrated.
Taking the cost in Bombay as applicable to the Presidency and Sind, the annual
expenditure consequent on the adoption of this system would at least amount
to three times the present cost.

102. Supposing that the money were available, the question should first
be considered whether the introduction of the method adopted on the Con-
tinent of Europe and recommended to be followed in India would be unattended
by risk to the growing appreciation by the people of the benefits of vaccination
as now practised. The existing arm-to-arm system, which is identical with that
practised in England and Scotland, has resulted in the protection against small-
pox of a number of persons almost equal to the number of children annually
born excluding those dying within the first year of life and those unfitted from
sickness or other cause for vaccination.

It is surely not asking too much that a system, which has attained such
popularity and accomplished such results at a cost of about a third of that likely
to be incurred by the introduction of the new system, should not be set aside
until the latter has been clearly demonstrated to be superior in principle and
practice and equally acceptable to the people.

103. Dr. Barclay continues: " On the following day, the animal affording the
lymph on the previous day is again tied to the table, and the whole of the lymph
removed. The animal is then killed and examined post mortem as to its sound-
ness, and, if sound, the lymph is used and the flesh sold in the public market as
quite wholesome.'' Comment on such proceedings amongst a community com-
posed mainly of Hindus is unnecessary. The report proceeds: " The thick
scrapings and the exuding lymph are all placed together in a stone mortar and
well rubbed with the gradual addition later of little powdered sugar of milk and
lastly a third or a half of the volume of the mass in the mortar of pure glycerine
is gradually added under constant rubbing converting the whole into a thin
pultaceous or syrupy fluid. This syrupy mass is then passed through a fine
metallic sieve by pressure with bone spatulas in order to remove any shreds of
tissue which may not have been broken up during triturition."

After reading this description of the " thin pultaceous fluid " to be employed
in vaccination, it is not difficult to understand that in London "the prejudice
of the people forbids the admixture of any foreign substance with the lymph."
Those who know the people of India are not likely to believe that their pre-
judices against such admixture will be less than those of the people of London.
Continuing, Dr. Barclay says: " If the thin pultaceous or syrupy fluid " is then
put into small glass tubes of various sizes but mostly 2 to 3 C.M. long and 3 to
8 M. M. in diameter, i.e. ¾ to 1¼ inches long and 1/10 to 3/10 inches in diameter, which
are corked with fresh corks and having been inverted the corked ends are dipped
into melted paraffin to secure efficient closure. Both tubes and plagues of glass
are then wrapped in tin foil to protect the lymph material from light and stored
in an ice-box on trays over the ice until required for transmission by post to the

104. Probably some difficulty would be found in carrying out with preci-
sion the delicate and complicated process described. It is at all events certain
that the manipulations could not be entrusted to the present members of the
vaccine establishment who are almost altogether devoid of scientific knowledge
and training.

The procedure may be simple enough in a country like Germany, where the
requisite agencies for carrying it out are available in abundance ; but in this
country it would be very much otherwise and disaster might not infrequently be
the result. Even after the despatch of the fluid by post the risks to which it
would be subjected by delay and exposure would only be commencing.

105. Doctor Barclay allows that " when pure lymph is used, a large absorb-
ng area is unnecessary either in the vaccination of human beings or animals,

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