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tempted to do so by their cheapness. With a few
contractors, dividing the province between them,
the equilibrium in prices is generally maintained.
63 and 64. No.

65. Yes.

69. Yes. Enquiry is made through the Tahsil-
dar to ascertain the wishes of the people. In
the camping season the sub-divisional officers
also, when an objection is raised, enquire into the
actual state of people's wishes and feelings.

27. Evidence of MR. W. H. MORELAND, Assistant Collector, Agra.

1. About three years', experience as Excise
officer in various districts.

1. These definitions may be generally accepted.
I have, however, found that the hemp plant is
commonly spoken of as "ganja" and the same
name is applied to the leaves of the plant when
roughly prepared for consumption, i.e., to " bhang "
made for home use from plants which have grown

3.  The only district in which I have found it is
Fyzabad. It cannot be said to grow abundantly

4.   I only saw one species of the plant in Fyza-
bad. It was generally spoken of as "ganja."

5.  In Fyzabad it was generally found growing
in the margins of water-holes near village sites,
on waste patches of ground, near the outlet of
house drains, etc.

16. In Fyzabad I found it was common to
prepare the drug at home. I may be permitted
to refer to the half-yearly excise report of the
Fyzabad district for March 1803, which contains
the results of my observations on this point.

35.  Where the plant grows spontaneously, it
would bo impossible to prohibit the consumption
of bhang ; and the bulk of the various drugs is so
small that in any case smuggling must ensue,
and would be almost impossible to detect. When
the contractors of adjoining districts are hostile,
they constantly smuggle drugs for sale into
their enemy's district, though the enemy be much
more vigilant than Government preventive agen-
cies are likely to prove.

36.  There is undoubtedly a class who will lake
either hemp drugs or alcohol, whichever is more
easily to be had. At present it is argued, in the
last provincial excise reports, that this class is
moving towards drugs. There is no reason here
to suppose that a contrary tendency exists.

40. I have heard this asserted. Cattle are often
given a branch of the wild plant when special
exertion is required of them.

58 and 59. I do not think the system works
altogether well. The province is really divided
between three or four large contractors, and conse-
quently the revenue (derived entirely from license
fees) is diminished by lack of competition. If
convenience of consumers is considered, the system
works well, as I have never heard complaints that,
persons were unable to get a good supply.

Until it is decided whether the consumption is
harmless or not it is difficult to say whether the
system works well, this depending on the object
in view; but the improvement I should desire to
see is one to raise more revenue from fixed duties
and less from license fees. An import duty might
bo imposed on charas, the duty being deposited
before the pass is issued. The production of ganja
is already heavily taxed in lower Bengal; and I
am unable to say whether it would hear any
import duty here in addition. This proposal is in
accord with the prevailing tendency in excise
administration, as shown by the recent rise of
still-head duty and sale-price of opium.

63 and 64. None.

68.   Consumption on the premises is not pro-
hibited by the terms of the license ; but so far as
I know, is not a common practice. Where it ob-
tains I have heard no complaints against it, except
that it tends to collect bad characters. In the
particular instance this complaint was quite un-

69.  It is a rule to consult landowners and the
principal residents before permission is given to
open a new shop or to move an existing one. I
believe that in general this enquiry, made through
the Tahsildar, is nominal, hut any one can object,
especially in the camping season; and such objec-
tions are always considered. Those which I have
enquired into myself were generally found to have
been brought out of spite, or in order to black-
mail. I think the power of raising objection is
quite sufficient safeguard for the public.

28. Evidence of MR. A. B. BRUCE, Joint Magistrate, Ghazipur.

1.  As Excise Officer, etc.

2.  These definitions may be accepted for the
North-Western Provinces. The usual local names
are ganja, charas and bhang. The usual method
of preparing ganja is to apply pressure by weights.
Sabji—generic for vegetables ; patti—leaves.

3.  I have never come across it growing wild.
It is certainly not common in the eastern districts
of these provinces. It is said to grow spon-
taneously in the submontane districts.

7. In the district of Ghazipur the hemp plant
is cultivated for the production of bhang and
ganja. The cultivation is carried on secretly,
because there is an erroneous impression that its
cultivation is unlawful. This is probably traceable
to the fact that in the adjoining districts of Bengal
free cultivation is not allowed.

The cultivation is very limited in this district.
Said to be common in the Brahmin and Rajput
villages of Reotipur, Sherpur, and Gahmar.

8. Under local orders the cultivation was formerly
  prohibited in this district. It is said that the
  removal of the prohibition four or live years ago
  has led to increased cultivation.

9. As the cultivation is not carried on openly, it
is difficult to obtain any particulars. The seed is
sown broadcast in good soil. The plants are after-
wards transplanted to some inclosed place (e.g.,
courtyard of houses), and carfully tended. For
the preparation of bhang no special care of the

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