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68.  There is no prohibition to consumption on
the premises that I am aware of, nor is any
necessary.

69.  The wishes of the people are not consulted.
They would not be slow to object if they had reason
to do so; and if they objected, the matter would
be enquired into. There is no need to consider
public opinion in such a matter. It does not exist;
and such shopsiare practically never a nuisance.

                            Oral evidence.

Question 1.—I have twelve years' service, and
have had settlement work for four or five years off
and on.

Question 3.—There is a tendency, the contractor
said, to keep stray plants for consumption. I
ordered the police to send up such cases. From
5th to 23rd November we had 23 cases. They
were just cases of three or four wild plants being
grown in baris or near houses. I only fined (small
fines) for being in possession of more than the
parties were entitled to. I understood that it was
wild hemp. It may have been grown from seeds
thrown away. I understand that that is gener-
ally said to be the way. I stopped the prosecu-
tions as the cases were so frequent. We had given
a sufficient warning. The thing could not be
stopped altogether. The matter was unimportant;
and time was being wasted. I took it up to leave
the contractor no ground of complaint, and because
it was interesting to see how far the cultivation
was carried on. There is a good deal of stray
growth of the plant in a casual way in Sultanpur
That is the only district in which I have consi-
dered the matter attentively.

Question 20.—The percentage at the end of this
answer is 25 or 30 per cent. of the adult males.
Women do not smoke, so far as I know. The
percentage is mainly based on Pundit Sheonath's
information (vide answer 1).

Question 22.—I do not know why Kashmir
charas is called garda. It was called so by Pundit
Sheonath, who told me about it. He had had
much excise experience in Lucknow.

Question 25.—My views on the increase are
not based on statistics. I do not think they are
kept. It is a general impression based on inter-
course with the people, and inquiry from officials,
and the tendency in contract prices to increase.
It is not very marked.

Kayasths have begun to have anti-liquor socie-
ties; and some kayasths have taken to bhang.
The societies have not been aimed at all at hemp
drugs so far as I know. The high price of liquor
is a stronger factor than these societies in produc-
ing increase in hemp consumption; for that affects
the people generally. The Sultanpur statistics
show the effect of price of liquor on liquor con-
sumption and indirectly on drugs consumption.
The remark in my answer is, however, of general
application, and represents what I believe to
be a general impression. The increase of duty and
the reduction of maximum strength have raised
the price of liquor, and have (the impression is)
led to increased consumption of ganja. I think
that to leave liquor for hemp drugs is a change
for the better if the people take to bhang, which
is what drinkers would naturally take. I cannot
say whether liquor drinkers have taken much to
smoking: as habits, the impression is that liquor
and ganja are not interchangeable. My impres-
sion is that ganja is worse than liquor. There is,
however, no such strong habit in respect, to these
drugs as in respect to liquor; no such difficulty
in breaking off the habit.

Question 35.—I think that the prohibition of
the drugs would not be impossible in regard to
charas which is imported. I was not thinking of
it. As to bhang and ganja the prohibition is
difficult owing to cultivation. I think that if the
people wished ganja and bhang, they could get,
they could produce it, not of course to the same
extent to which they get it now. It would be
comparatively little. But it could, I believe, be
greatly increased as compared with the present
private cultivation. It could be secretly culti-
vated easily to a greater extent than at present
if licit ganja became impossible.

In the last sentence of the last paragraph what
I mean is that the people (an ignorant people)
might have recourse to violence and give trouble
if they were deprived of the stimulant they
wanted.

Question 44.—By "comparatively," I mean
compared with alcohol or ganja or charas.

Question 45.—The period of "about twelve
years" was mentioned by Pundit Sheonath. I
have no other source of information on this point.

Question 59.—I do not think that consumption
on the premises would lead people to think that
the consumption was under the Government pro-
tection but under Government supervision. I
cannot tell what other people—the ignorant
people—might think. I think there is no harm in
locating smoking. It might be useful sometimes
to know who the excessive and recognised smokers
are, because any one who cannot afford it running
to excess is likely to seek to acquire the means of
getting the intoxicant illegally if he has not the
means properly. I have settlement experience
which takes me out among the villages, and also
magisterial experience; my general impression is
that there is no call for repression in respect to
hemp drugs. I have not made special enquiries,
of course; but my impression is that the people
in the villages use the drug in moderation. One
never sees a man intoxicated from it. I have no
recollection of any case of excess in my magisterial
experience. There is no evil that calls for inter-
ference. I have had occasionally—rarely—cases
of liquor intoxication, only (I think) as City Magis-
trate in Lucknow, both Natives and Europeans;
but I recollect no hemp drugs case.

13. Evidence of MR. R. H. BRERETON, Offg. Magistrate and Collector, Benares.

51. I should say not; but drugs are occasionally
taken before starting on an expedition. Wine is,
however, generally preferred on such occasions.
Bhars, pasis, etc., always take native liquor.
Thakurs, brahmans, malis, etc., will take bhang,
but not ganja or charas. I should say the moder-
ate use of the drugs has no connection with crime at
all, except that, as indicated above, criminals may
occasionally take a dose to keep up their courage.

52 and 53. Excessive use of these drugs, when
it leads to insanity, incites to unpremeditated
crime. The lunatic asylums must be full of such
cases. I cannot quote any particular case.

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