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I believe that to be undoubted. I would advocate
the imposition of a duty. I should not regret
the restriction of charas as compared with ganja.
I should advocate it. As shown in paragraph 32
of my memorandum, I fear that any attempt to
impose a very heavy duty would be thwarted in a
greater or less degree by the manufacture of charas
locally. J put in specimens of charas made in
Gwalior. I believe it can be made anywhere
where the plant grows. If the demand increased,
if a scarcity price prevailed, the local supply would
greatly increase. The only figures as to local pro-
duction, on which I can really rely, are contained
in paragraph 31. The contractors admit that five
or six maunds of British Himalayan charas annu-
ally pass into their hands. It is probably more.
Any how, the mass of the stuff produced does not
pass into their hands, but passes from hand to
hand among consumers. I should say that not
less than about twenty-five maunds are manufac-
tured at present in the hill districts; and that is
pure. It represents more charas, weight for
weight, than the imported charas. The Himala-
yan charas could only be taxed on import to other
districts with very great difficulty.

Paragraph 11.—Oil is made and is used for
culinary purposes. It is believed to have no narco-
tic quality. The seed also is used for diet, curries,
etc., and is said to be fattening. The fibre we
have from the hemp plant is the best we produce.

Paragraph 12.—I am sure that ganja could be
produced locally to a large extent, and that local
measures would be necessary in connection with
any measures as to restrictions on import. I
have good specimens of this local ganja which I

Paragraph 13.—I have not made any proposal
to change the maximum of possession in any case.
I think that the maximum is reasonable in each
case, the object being (I understand) to prevent
illicit traffic.

Paragraph 21.—I do not think that the matter
of crediting the Bengal license fee receipts affects
the administration at all. I think, however, that
it would be better to levy it here, as we should
control the matter, whereas Bengal changes
sometimes (as last year) affect our contracts. I
therefore propose this in paragraph 48 (6).

Paragraph 22.-Here the Khandwa and Gwa-
lior ganja must be distinguished. I think a duty
should be imposed on both of these (paragraph 48
(6)). It may perhaps lead at first to loss of reve-
nue. It would in the end lead to increase of reve-
nue, I believe; and in any case the same revenue
is collected in a better way. The best system is
the direct duty combined with the indirect (or
contract) duty, cf. paragraph 34. I do not mean
to advocate in that paragraph the monopoly sys-
tem by itself as against the mixed system. I
only mean to vindicate the contract system from
the charge made by persons unacquainted with the
facts that it stimulates consumption. I may add
that the direct duty would prevent the evil indi-
cated in paragraph 33 of flooding the market with
cheap drugs at the end of a contract,

Paragraph 44.—The fact is important that the
restrictions on liquor have tended to the increas-
ed consumption of ganja and hemp drugs. I
put these drugs above liquor and opium in their
injurious tendencies; and the policy adopted has,
I think, tended to increase their consumption. If
restriction were further extended to hemp drugs,
I believe it would tend to the use of still worse
forms of intoxicants, such as dhatura, strych-
nine, aconite, etc. I have not met myself cases
of the use of these drugs; but I have heard of
their consumption, I believe it to be rare.

Paragraph 48 (2).—The prohibition of manu-
facture would be difficult to carry out effectively;
but, provided the duty were not pushed up too
high, the prohibition would have considerable
effect. We could much more easily control the
business if we had only to deal with imports; so
I am anxious to have prohibition in the case of
ganja and charas.

Paragraph 48 (7).—I do not think that this
proposal to have bonded warehouses could be said
to bring Government into the business. It
would be a purely restrictive measure. It would
be similar to the Khandwa system. One of its
main advantages would be to deprive contractors
of the inducement to lower the price and push the
sale of deteriorating drugs on which they had
paid duty. If duty were levied, this inducement
would be strong unless there were bonded ware-

Paragraph 48.—In the last sentence of my
memorandum, I had in my mind the practice of
Bengal, where the system of licensing separato
drugs is reported to have worked well. It would
enable us to provide for the sale of the more harm-
less forms of the drugs without the others, and
to meet the demand for one form without allow-
ing the sale of other forms of the drug.

7. Evidence of MR. H. M. BIRD, Magistrate and Collector, Cawnpore.

51.  (a) No.
(b) None.

52.  I don't think any large proportion of bad
characters use these drugs to excess,

53(a). Yes.
(b) I can't recall to my memory any special
case of temporary homicidal frenzy, but I have a
recollection of such cases having occurred.

54.  I don't think so.

55.  Not as a rule; sometimes dhatura is mixed
with the drugs.

8. Evidence of MR. HUGH FRASER, Magistrate and Collector, Bijnor.

3. It grows abundantly in Gorakhpur and Bij-
nor districts of those which I have seen.

6. It grows in dense patches often; but often
one finds a few scattered plants. The patches,
however, are widely scattered. It grows in forests
and near village sites equally.

16. Bhang can be prepared from the hemp plant
wherever grown, and by any person; ganja and
charas cannot.

25. As to bhang, which grows spontaneously,
it is impossible to give any figures. Ganja is not
used in this district. The use of charas is, I be-

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