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bhang. Mathura is the great home of bhang con-

25. The consumption of all drugs is on the
increase owing to clearness and badness of liquor.

29. Pepper, cardamoms, and aniseed are ordi-
narily mixed with bhang. Dhatura is sometimes
used for the sake of strength. In large cities,
such as Delhi and Agra, a special preparation is
sold; melon and cucumber seeds are stated to be
among its ingredients.

30. All three drugs are consumed in company.
Consumption is ordinarily confined to male adults.

31.  The consumption of these drugs is a habit
not very difficult to give up. There is little
danger of excess in bhang, but in the other drugs
there may be.

32.  Bhang is offered to the god Shiva.

33.  The consumption of bhang is not looked
upon with disapproval; that of the other drugs is.
The hemp plant is worshipped in Mauranipur in
the Jhansi district.

34. It would be a most serious grievance to de-
prive the people of bhang. It would be equiva-
lent to depriving sailors of tobacco.

35. Total prohibition of any of these drugs
would be impossible: a possible consequence would
be the use of dhatura.

37.   Charas is the stronger drug.

38.  All kinds of ganja are very much the same
in effect.

41.  Bhang is very useful as an appetizer, to
give staying-power, and also as a febrifuge.

42.  The moderate use of bhang is certainly
harmless. There is a consensus of medical opinion
that no illness or bad effects of any kind have ever
been traced, either directly or indirectly, to the use
of this drug.

47. There is no proof of hereditary effect pro-
duced by these drugs.

59. What is wanted in excise administration is
differential taxation, the duty on the more deleter-
ious drugs being made higher.

60 and 61. The hemp plant not being culti-
vated for trade in the plains of India, might be
usefully subjected to restriction.

69. Local public opinion ought to be generally

                    4. Evidence of MR. D. F. ADDIS, Magistrate and Collector of Muzaffarnagar.

1. My experience is in the Muzaffarnagar dis-

3. The hemp plant grows wild in all parts of
the district, particularly in the low lands near the
rivers and near the canals.

7. There is no cultivation.

19.  Charas and bhang only are used in this
district. Charas is smoked.

20.  Drugs are consumed chiefly by Brahmins
and fakirs.

22.  Charas is imported from Yarkand through
the Punjab.

23.  Bhang is not smoked. It is pounded up
and mixed with black pepper and drunk with

25. I do not think that the consumption of
bhang and charas is on the increase. The average
amount sold in the district by the drug contractor
is 60 maunds of bhang and 34 maunds charas.

This amount does not tend to increase, and the
revenue is stationary,

33. Public opinion is strongly against the use
of hemp drugs, because they are thought to be
hurtful. Drugs have no connection with religion.

35. It probably would be feasible to prohibit
the use of all these drugs. Public opinion is
against their use, and the people are very obedient
to authority. The prohibition would certainly
lead to an increased use of alcohol and opium.

39. Bhang is considered much less hurtful than
charas. Bhang in moderation is supposed to pro-
mote appetite.

51. I do not think that there is any necessary
connection between the use of hemp drugs and

54. I have known of no case in which a crimi-
nal has fortified himself with hemp drugs in
order to commit a crime. Men about to commit
a crime need all their wits about them.

                    5. Evidence of MR. A. W. CRUICKSHANK, Magistrate and Collector, Agra.

51.  I have no reason to think so. Moderate
use of drugs has not (that I have any knowledge
of) connection with any crime.

52.  The excessive use of all or any of the hemp
drugs produces mental alienation. Ganja used in
excess is particularly likely to produce utterly
reasonless violence, and even homicidal mania.

53.  Yes. I cannot recall any particular case
within my own experience. N. Chevers, Medical
Jurisprudence, quotes instances, and Superintend-
ents of jails and lunatic asylums could quote
many cases.

54.  I have no personal knowledge of any such
case, but have read of persons acquiring Dutch
courage from bhang.

55.  I have no personal knowledge of any such
case. The question as to complete stupefaction is
one which I cannot answer from experience. It
seems a question for a medical expert.

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