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                                    CHAPTER XVII.

                              SYSTEMS OF NATIVE STATES.

Systems in Native States.

696. The foregoing chapter contains the views of the Commission on the
introduction throughout British India of a system
of excise in regard to hemp drugs which will be
ultimately uniform. But this uniformity of system must necessarily fail of
its purpose unless the co-operation of the Native States which are interlaced
with British territory is at the same time secured. A brief review of the
systems at present in force in Native States is therefore necessary, together with
some remarks as to the desirability of securing the adoption of a similar system
in those States. The material at the disposal of the Commission in regard to
the States is somewhat incomplete and fragmentary, but a good deal of inform-
ation of a general character has been obtained which will enable the Commission
to come to some decision on the subject.

States in the Himalayan tract
where the plant grows wild.

697. The conditions under which the wild hemp is found have been detailed
in Chapter III. Generally it may be said that the
wild growth only thrives in the Himalayan tract.
The Native States falling within this tract are Kashmir, some of the Punjab
Hill States, Garhwal Tehri and Rampur in the North-Western Provinces, Nepal,
Kuch Behar, and the Assam Hill States. In all these States bhang is produced;
but as the control of bhang in similarly situated tracts in British territory has
been pronounced impracticable, this fact need not interfere with British excise
arrangements. Kashmir apparently produces no charas properly so called, and
all the charas which comes to the Punjab through Kashmir is accounted for under
the Punjab system of registration. A little charas comes from Garhwal and from
Nepal, but the amount is not sufficient to disturb British arrangements. The
cultivation of ganja is prohibited in Kuch Behar, which receives its supplies from
Rajshahi, the duty being credited to the State. Ganja to a very small extent is
said to be imported from Nepal, and there is considerable smuggling of inferior
ganja from the Assam Hill States which has been noticed in Chapter XV. With
this last exception, it may be stated generally that the system or want of system
in regard to hemp drugs in all these States is a factor which need not be taken
into account in the excise system of British India. And as regards the Assam
Hill States, it is probable that no further preventive measures can be taken at
present than those already adopted, viz., prevention through the Assam Excise
establishment when the drug is brought into British territory for sale. There is
no system in force in the Hill States, and for some time to come it is not likely
that any can be expected.

In other States the production of
ganja is the most important feature.

698. The extent to which the hemp drugs are produced in the Native States
in other parts of India, and exported from them to
the various British provinces, has been detailed in
Chapters IV and VII of this Report, so far as can be gathered from the informa-
tion received. It is mainly in respect of the production of ganja that the arrange-
ments in these States have any perceptible effect on the British excise system.
The conditions of the principal States or groups of States in this respect
will be briefly noticed in the following paragraphs as well as the systems in

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