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provinces are, no doubt, affected by the proximity of Native States,
they are nevertheless sufficiently successful for practical pur-

(2) That there is nothing to prevent the Government from entering into
negotiations with the States (as has been done in the case of the
Central Provinces, apparently with marked success) for mutual
co-operation in the interests of the excise revenue, and the Commis-
sion (vide Chapter XVII) are prepared to recommend that this
should be done.

Evidence relating to control of
cultivation in Madras.

667. It will be desirable to analyse the evidence on this point in both presi-
dencies. Several witnesses in Madras speak of the
needlessness of controlling cultivation, but on this
point it cannot be expected that they should take a sufficiently wide view, as
the interests at stake are larger than those of individual districts. The only wit-
nesses who consider the measure impossible are—Mr. Sewell, Collector; Mr.
Mounsey, Collector; Mr. Willock, Collector (as regards the Agency tracts);
and Mr. Taylor, Manager, Jeypore Estate (as regards the Agency tracts); two
Deputy Collectors; and a Missionary.

On the other hand, there is a much larger consensus of opinion that control
is feasible. The Hon'ble Mr. Crole, Member of the Board of Revenue, in charge
of Excise, says: "If you were to order the stoppage of cultivation of hemp or
even rice, it would be done. There would be no difficulty in having the order
carried out. The people would stop the cultivation: they are quite amenable.
It would be stopped without the necessity of espionage and interference, but
there would always be the risk of false charges." Mr. Merriman, Deputy
Commissioner of Salt and Abkari, says: "There is a good deal of backyard
cultivation which is untaxed. It would be desirable to stop the sporadic culti-
vation if feasible. I think we could do this. I think it would be far simpler
to issue an order stopping cultivation, and that would be far easier than attempt-
ing to tax it. I believe this cultivation could be stamped out by the mere
issue of the order; and, supposing that there were reasonable facilities for
consumers obtaining the drugs, the dissatisfaction would not be great." Mr.
Benson, Deputy Director of Agriculture, says that "prohibition of cultivation
would not harass the people, as those affected would be so few; and it would,
I think, within a short time accomplish its object." Mr. Levy, Acting Deputy
Commissioner, Salt and Abkari, thinks "the cultivation of the hemp plant, and
the manufacture and possession of the drugs therefrom, should be brought under
thorough control." Mr. Bradley, Collector, thinks that, except in the Wynaad,
prohibition of cultivation would be possible in Malabar, and could "be generally
carried out without much interference with the people, but would be hardly
possible in the jungly parts." He thinks that for ordinary tracts the present
abkari staff might be sufficient to secure compliance with the order, though he
does not guarantee this.

Other advocates for the control of cultivation are—Five Deputy Collectors,
one of whom, Mr. Azizuddeen Sahib Bati, in North Arcot, says that a prohibitive
order would have the effect of stopping cultivation without any great interference;
two Deputy Conservators of Forests, three Tahsildars or Acting Tahsildars,


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