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nock manufacture. Improving upon the pattern
which was produced by previous inventors, he, or
his successors, contrived to execute so delicately the
hinge of the snuff-box, as to make the name of Cum-
nock essential to the vest-pocket's storehouse of most.
in Scotland who are politely "led by the nose." " A
few years ago," says a writer in the New Statisti-
cal Account of Scotland, " a solid foot of wood, that
cost only 3s., could be manufactured into boxes worth
±100 sterling, and then the workmanship increased
the original value of the wood nearly 700 times ; but
at present a solid foot of wood, will only yield, in
finished boxes, about ±9 sterling." The great fall-
ing-off is to be accounted for chiefly by the satiating
of the passion for novelty, — snuff- takers being as
curious in the recherche of their box, as antiquarians
are in the high date and freshness of their discoveries;
and, in a degree, by the sharpness of competition
tram the quarters whence the idea of the ' Cumnock
snuff-box' was originally obtained. In addition to
the area already mentioned, Cumnock consists of
very narrow lanes ; and, on the whole, it is irre-
gularly built. Yet it occupies a picturesque site, is
clean and healthful, overlooks some beautiful wood-
lands in the parish, is romantically interspersed with
fine old trees, and altogether presents a picture on
which the eye of the traveller may delight to rest.
The village contains good shops in all departments,
a gas- work, and branch-offices of two banking com-
panies ; and, owing to its advantageous position in
relation to the surrounding country, transacts much
retail business. Of the 16 bridges in the parish, 3
are in the village. Four annual fairs are held here,
respectively in February, in May, in July, and in
October, O.S. Here, also, are 2 public libraries, 3
friendly societies, and a savings-bank. Population
of the village in 1801, apart from the parish, 1,798.
CUMNOCK (New), a parish, in the district of
Kyle, forming the south-eastern limb of Ayrshire.
It is bounded on the north by Auchinleck, Old
Cumnock, and Ochiltree ; on the east by Dumfries-
shire ; on the south by Galloway ; and on the west
by Dalmellington. It has an outline of very nearly
an oblong square ; is 12 miles in length from east
to west, somewhat more than 8 in breadth, and con-
tains an area of upwards of 100 square miles, or about
30,000 acres. Its surface is dotted with hills, and,
in its southern division, is warted with mountains.
Its highest elevations are Black-craig, about 4 a mile
from its eastern boundary, rising 1,600 feet above
the valley of Nith, and Black-Larg-hill, on its south-
ern boundary, which rises 2,890 feet above sea-level;
but these elevations are excelled in interest by the
Knipe, to the south, 1,200, and especially by the
Corsancone, 872, which, owing to its position, com-
mands a beautiful and extensive view. Indeed the
whole southern division of the parish is lifted up-
wards by elevations, Craigdarroch, Saddlehagg,
Coptaw-Cairn, Benly-Cowan-hill, Chang-hill, High-
Chang-hill, Enoch-hill, Blackstone-hill, Craig-hill,
and several other heights. The lowest ground is
the valley of the Nith, — a river which, rising in the
south-west extremity of the parish, intersects it
from west to east, flows here about 500 feet above
sea-level, and, on leaving the parish to irrigate Dum-
fries-shire, begins to form, in that county, the dis-
trict of Nithsdale. The Nith is here shallow and
sluggish, highly tinctured with moss, and about 15
feet broad. Flowing northwards, of local origin,
and falling into the Nith, the small stream called the
Afton, forms a beautiful valley, and is overlooked
by richly sylvan banks. There are, on the northern
confines of the parish, 3 small lakes, averaging about
£ a mile in circumference ; but abounding in perch,
pike, and water-fowl. Carboniferous limestone oc-
curs in abundance, lies in beds 12 feet thick, and is
wrought, at Benstone, Mansfield, and Polquhortor.
Improved limekilns have been erected by the enter-
prising and judicious Monteith of Closeburn, Dum-
fries-shire. Freestone, for the most part of a dingy
white colour, and coarse in the grain, is plenteous.
Ironstone is found in bands and balls, but has never
been wrought. Alternate seams of smith's coal and
cannel coal appear to pavement the eastern district,
and are in considerable request ; the former for mak-
ing gas in Dumfries and Catrine, and the latter, for
less chemical purposes, in Ayr, Kilmarnock, and
other places. Plumbago, or black-lead, is found in
the coal-formation, and has, for a considerable period,
been wrought. It is, however, of very inferior quality
to that of Borrodale in Cumberland. There are, in
the parish, 3 villages, or hamlets, Path-head, Afton-
Bridge-end, and New Cumnock ; which had, in 1831,
a population, — the first, 361; the second, 242; and
the third, 161. Two great roads traverse the district,
both through New Cumnock, the one from north
to south, along the valley of the Afton ; and the
other, the great road from Glasgow to Dumfries, a
short way due south, and then from east to west,
making an extraordinary debouche in consequence of
the hilly configuration of the surface. Population, in
1801, 1,381 ; in 1831, 2,184. Houses, 454. As-
sessed property, in 1815, £8,538 New Cumnock
is in the presbytery of Ayr, and synod of Glasgow
and Ayr. Patron, the Marquis of Bute. Stipend,
±'194 lis. 8d. ; glebe, £24. This parish was origi-
nally a section of that of Cumnock, or Old Cumnock,
and shared in its ecclesiastical history. Its present
church is of recent structure, and accommodates
1,000 sitters Connected with the Reformed Pres-
byterians, there are here about 120 individuals,
who have a local place of worship. There are also
nearly 200 members or hearers of the United Seces-
sion, who attend their place of worship in the village
of Old Cumnock Schoolmaster's salary, ±'32, with
school-fees of from 2s. to 3s. per quarter, and other
emoluments, £4 10s. There are 2 schools non-
CUNNINGHAM, the northern district of Ayr-
shire ; bounded on the east by Renfrewshire ; on the
north and west by the frith of Clyde ; and, on the
south, separated from Kyle by the river Irvine. Its
length from north to south may be about 18 miles ;
its breadth from east to west 12 miles. It includes
the following parishes : — Ardrossan, Beith, Dairy,
Dreghorn, part of Dunlop, Fenwick, Irvine, KU-
birnie, West Kilbride, Kilmarnock, Kilmaurs,
Kilwinning, Largs, Loudoun, Stevenston, and
Stewarton. The total number of inhabited houses
in the district in 1831 , was 7,602 ; of families 13,047.
Of these, 2,212 families were employed in agricul-
ture, and 7,457, in trade, manufactures, and handi-
crafts. The total population was 63,453. Cunning-
ham is pleasantly diversified with hill and dale ; but
cannot be said to have any mountains. It is watered
by numerous streams, the chief of which are the An-
nock, Caaf, Garnock, Irvine, and Rye : which
see. In it are several populous towns and villages :
as Ardrossan, Beith, Dalry, Irvine, Kilwin-
ning, Largs, Saltcoats, Stewarton, &c. : which
see. The whole district abounds with coal, limestone,
and freestone. It is, however, mostly in the hands of
great proprietors, and is, of consequence, ornamented
with few seats. Eglinton castle and Kelburne
are the chief: which see. — This district is celebrated
for its dairy husbandry, which has reached greater
perfection here than in any other quarter of Scot-
land. Full milk cheese was first begun to be made
in the parishes of Beith, Dunlop, Stewarton, and
others, soon after the middle of last century. It was

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