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CUM
282
CUM
November, 1833. She was the last of a direct line
which for nearly five centuries had nourished in Fife-
shire, and whose deeds, for good or for evil, have
been enrolled on many pages of the chronicles of
Scotland. Her remains repose in a mausoleum on
Walton hill, where also rest the ashes of her brother.
The Earldom of Lindsay will belong to the person
who can prove himself heir-male-general of George,
the last Earl. The Earldom of Crawford is claimed
by the Earl of Balcarres.
CUMBERNAULD, a parish in the county of
Dumbarton, though locally in that of Lanark ; ex-
tending about 7 miles in length, and 4 in breadth ;
bounded on the north by Stirlingshire ; on the east
by Stirling and Lanark shires ; on the south by Lan-
arkshire ; and on the west by Kirkintilloch parish.
Area 17,260 English acres. The surface is beauti-
fully diversified with small hills and fertile dales.
The highest part is called Fannyside moor, producing
nothing but heath and furze. On the south east side
of this moor are two lochlets, each about a mile long,
and one quarter of a mile broad. The remainder
of the parish is mostly arable, with a deep clay soil,
and tolerably fertile. Lime, coal, and freestone,
abound. Considerable remains of Antoninus's wall
are to be seen here, on the northern skirts of the
parish, nearly in the course of the Great canal
which connects the Clyde and the Forth The
village and burgh-of-barony of Cumbernauld is 13
miles east of Glasgow; 9 west of Falkirk; and 13
south of Stirling. It is pleasantly situated in a
valley almost surrounded with the pleasure-grounds
of Cumbernauld-house, the estate of Lord Elphin-
stone. The new road from Glasgow to Falkirk
passes close to the village, near which is built a
large and commodious inn. The inhabitants are
chiefly employed in weaving for the Glasgow manu-
facturers. It has an annual fair on the 2d Thurs-
day in May. Population of the parish and village
in 1801, 1,795; in 1831, 3,080. Houses in 1801,
393. Assessed property, in 1815, £6,144 This
parish, formerly a vicarage, and which, prior to 1649,
formed part of Kirkintilloch, is in the presbytery of
Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron,
Lord Elphinstone. Stipend £264 3s. 2d. ; glebe
£17 10s. Unappropriated teinds £694 lis. lOd.
Church repaired in 1810 ; sittings 660 There is
an original Burgher congregation. Chapel built in
1743; rebuilt, in 1825, at the cost of about £1,000;
sittings 576. Stipend £100, with manse and garden.
— There is also a United Secession church, which
was early established here. Stipend £70, with
manse and garden An extension church and quoad
sacra parish have recently been formed here
Schoolmaster's salary £25, with £26 fees. There is
a school at the village of Condorat, and another at
Garbethill.. — Professor Low, in his ' Illustrations of
the Breeds of the Domestic Animals of the British
Islands,' [London: 1840. fol.] says, "John Les-
lie, bishop of Ross, who wrote in 1598, states
that the wild ox. — Bos sylveslris — was found in
the woods of Scotland ; that it was of a white co-
lour, had a thick mane resembling a lion's, that it
was wild and savage, and, when irritated, rushed
\ipon the hunters, overthrew the horses, and dis-
persed the attacks of the fiercest dogs. He says that
it had formerly abounded in the Sylva Caledonia, but
was then only to be found at Stirling, Cumbernauld,
and Kincardine. Hector Bruce, in his History and
Chromcles of Scotland, bears testimony to the like
effect : — ' At this toun — namely Stirling — began the
gret wod of Caledon. This wod of Caledon ran fra
Striveling throw Menteith and Stratherne to Atholl
and Lochquabir, as Ptolome writtis in his first table.
In this wod wes sum time quhit bullis, with crisp
and curland mane, like feirs lionis, and thoucht thay
semit meek and tame in the remanent figure of thair
bodyis thay wer mair wild than ony uthir beiztis,
and had sich hatrent aganis the societe and cumpany
of men, that they come nevir in the wodis nor lesuris
quhair thay fand ony feit or haind thairof, and moy
dayis eftir, thay eit nocht of the herbis that wer
twichit or handiUitt be men. Their bullis were sa
wild that thay wer nevir tane but slight and crafty
laubour, and sa impacient that, eftir thair taking,
thay deit for importable doloure. Als sone as ony
man invadit thir bullis, thay ruschit with so terrible
preis on him, that thay dang him to the eord, takand
ha feir of houndis, scharp lancis, nor uthir maist
penitrive wapintris. And thoucht thir bullis wer
bred in sindry boundis of the Caledon wod, now, be
continewal hunting and lust of insolent men, thay
ar destroyit in all party of Scotland and nane of
tliaim left bot allanerlie in Cumarnald.' " Here,
however, they were also subjected to persecution;
and "in a remarkable document written in 1570-71,
the writer, describing the aggressions of the king's
party, complains of the destruction of the deer in the
forest of Cumbernauld, ' and the quhit ky and bullis
of the saidforrest, to thegryt destructione of polecie,
and hinder of the commonweil. For that kynd of
ky and bullis hes bein keipit thir money zeiris in
the said forest ; and the like was not mantenit in
ony uther partis of the He of Albion.' " Mr. Low
then adduces various arguments to prove, that nei-
ther as respects their white colour, nor their pecu-
liar habits, are these wild cattle to be regarded as a
species distinct from the domesticated oxen.
CUMBRAYS* (The), two islets in the frith of
Clyde, distinguished as the Greater and the Less,
or the Big and the Little Cumbray. They belong
to the county of Bute, and lie between the island of
Bute and the coast of Ayrshire. The Greater or
Big Cumbray is 4 miles east of the south-east part
of Bute, and 2 miles west of Largs in Ayrshire.
The Little Cumbray lies to the south of it, being
separated from it by a channel of about three-quar-
ters of a mile in breadth. The two Cumbrays are
a link in the geological chain which connects Bute
with the adjoining mainland.
The larger of the two Cumbrays corresponds in geo-
logical structure with the middle — old red sandstone
— district of Bute, and is chiefly interesting, in a
scientific point of view, from the enormous trap-
dykes with which it is traversed. The New Statis-
tical Account mentions that the more remarkable of
these " are two on the east side of the island, run-
ning nearly parallel, and from five to six hundred
yards distant from each other. The one to the
north-east measures upwards of 40 feet in height,
nearly 100 in length, and in mean thickness from
ten to twelve feet. The one to the southward is
upwards of 200 feet in length, from 12 to 15 in
thickness, and from 70 to 80 feet in height; and
when viewed in a certain direction, exhibits the dis-
tant resemblance of a lion couching, hence it is some-
times called The Lion." These dykes are of a
highly crystalline structure, and have withstood the
effects of the atmosphere and of the sea; whilst the
red sandstone on both sides of the dyke, being more
easily decomposed, has been wasted away. The local
name of these dykes is Rippel walls. They re-appear
in Ayrshire, and traverse that and the whole of the
neighbouring county of Galloway. The zoology
and botany of this small island are abundant and
interesting. It is 3£ miles in length from north-east
to south-west, and about 2 miles in breadth. Super-
* The name Cumbray, Cambray, Chnbray, or Cimbracs, is said
to be derived from the Gaelic, aud to imply ' a Place of shelter,'
or ' refuge.'

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