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CUL
279
CUL
to every Scotsman by quoting; two stanzas from an
Ode on Culloden, by the late John Grieve, first pub-
'ished in Hogg's Jacobite Relics : — ■
" Culloden, on thy swarthy brow
Spring no wild flowers or verdure fair ;
Thou feel'st not summer's genial glow,
More than the freezing wintry air !
For once thou drank'st the hero's blood,
And war's unhallowed footsteps bore :
The deeds unholy Nature viewed,
Then fled and curBed thee evermore!
" Shades of the mighty and the brave,
Who, faithful to your Stuart, fell ;
No trophies mark your common grave,
Nor dirges to your memory swell !
But generous hearts will weep your fate,
When far has rolled the tide of time ;
And bards unborn shall renovate
Your fading fame in loftiest rhyme ! "
CULLODEN HOUSE, in the parish of Inver-
ness ; 4 miles north-east by east of Inverness, the
seat of the ancient and respectable family of Forbes.
Prince Charles lodged here the night before the me-
morable battle, on the 16th of April, 1746. By a
curious coincidence, the important and decisive battle
of Culloden was fought on the moor of the paternal
estate of that great and good man, Lord-president
Forbes, whose influence in the Highlands, and un-
wearied perseverance during the two preceding years,
made the suppression of a very alarming insurrec-
tion comparatively easy to Government. The man-
sion-house of Culloden has been renewed since 1745.
It stands on the verge of the moor, surrounded by
plantations, and commanding a noble view of the
Moray frith, and of the mountains on the opposite
side of the Nairn. Captain Burt, in his well-known
' Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scot-
land' — which were written, from personal observa-
tion, about the year 1730 — describes the old house of
Culloden as being " a pretty large fabric, built with
stone, and divided into rooms, among which the hall
is very spacious. There are good gardens belonging
to it, and a noble-planted avenue, of great length,
that leads to the house, and a plantation of trees
about it. This house—or castle — was besieged, in
the year 1715, by a body of the rebels ; and the laird
being absent in parliament, his lady baffled all their
attempts with extraordinary courage and presence of
mind. Nearly adjoining are the parks — that is, one
large tract of ground, surrounded with a low wall of
loose stones, and divided into several parts by parti-
tions of the same. The surface of the ground is all
over heath, or, as they call it, heather, without any
trees; but some of it has been lately sown with the
seed of firs, which are now grown about a foot and
a half high, but are hardly to be seen for the heath.
An English captain, the afternoon of the day fol-
lowing his arrival here from London, desired me to
ride out with him, and show him the parks of Cul-
loden, without telling me the reason of his curiosity.
Accordingly we set out, and when we were pretty
near the place, he asked me, — ' Where are these
parks? For,' says he, ' there is nothing near in view
tut heath, and, at a distance, rocks and mountains.'
I pointed to the enclosure ; and, being a little way
before him, heard him cursing in soliloquy, which
occasioned my making a halt, and asking if any thing
had displeased him. Then he told me, that, at a
coffee-house in London, he was one day commend-
ing the park of Studley, in Yorkshire, and those of
several other gentlemen in other parts of England,
when a Scots captain, who was by, cried out — ' Ah,
sir ! but if you were to see the parks at Culloden,
in Scotland ! ' This my companion repeated several
times with different modulations of voice ; and, then,
in an angry manner, swore, if he had known how gross-
ly he had been imposed on, he could not have put up
with so great an affront. But I should have told
you, that every one of the small divisions above-
mentioned is called a separate park, and that the
reason for making some of the inner walls has been
to prevent the hares, with which, as I said before,
the country abounds, from cropping the tender tops
of these young firs." The Culloden estates were
for upwards of thirty years under trust management.
Some curious particulars respecting this trust are
given in ' Tait's Magazine' for May 1840. On the
6th of April, 1841, they came into the free possession
of Arthur Forbes, Esq. of Culloden.
CULROSS,* a parish belonging to Perthshire,
though locally disjoined from it by the intervention
of Clackmannanshire, and politically conjoined with
the shires of Clackmannan and Kinross. It forms
nearly a square of 4 miles, containing 8,145 Scots
acres; and is bounded on the west by Tulliallan;
on the north-west by Clackmannan; on the north
by Saline ; on the east by Torryburn ; and on the
south by the frith of Forth. The barony of Kin-
cardine was disjoined from this parish in 1672, and
united to Tulliallan. The surface is level, if we
except the abrupt ascent from the shore. The north-
ern part of the parish consists of a large moor which
is planted with wood; the southern is fertile, and
particularly that part of it which is intersected by
the Bluther, which, uniting with another streamlet
called the Grange, falls into the sea at Newmill
bridge, where it forms the eastern boundary of the
parish. It abounds with freestone, ironstone, ochre,
and a species of clay highly valued by potters and
by glass-manufacturers. Coal, the chief mineral
product, was wrought here at a very remote period
by the monks of Culross abbey, to whom it belonged.
Colville, commendator of the abbey in 1575, let the
coal to Sir George Bruce of Blairhall, who resumed
the working of it, and was the first in the island
who drained coal-pits by means of machinery. Be-
low the house of Castlehill, about a quarter of a
mile west of Culross, are still some remains of the
masonry employed in the erection of an Egyptian
wheel — commonly called a chain and bucket — for
draining the pits. Sir George carried on these coal-
works with great spirit. A pit was sunk here,
which entering from the land, was carried nearly a
mile out into the sea: the coal being shipped by a
moat within sea-mark, which had a subterranean
communication with the pit. This pit was reckoned
one of the greatest wonders in the island, by Taylor,
an English traveller, who saw it in the beginning of
the 17th century. There is a tradition, that James
VI., revisiting his native country after his accession
to the English crown, made an excursion into Fife ;
and, resolving to take the diversion of hunting in
the neighbourhood of Dunfermline, invited the com-
pany then attending him to dine along with him at
" a collier's house," meaning the Abbey-house of
Culross, then belonging to Sir George Bruce. Being
conducted, by his own desire, to see the works be-
low ground, he was led insensibly by bis host and
guide to the moat above-mentioned, it being then
high water ; and, having ascended from the pit, and
seeing himself, without any previous intimation,
surrounded by the sea, he was seized with an im-
mediate apprehension of some plot against his liberty
or life, and hastily called out, " Treason! Treason 1"
But his faithful guide quickly dispelled his fears, by
* The name Culross is evidently of Gaelic origin, and is
compounded of cut and rots ; the first, signifying 'back,' or,
more properly, what is expressed by c/unis in Latin ; and rose,
*a peninsula.' The peninsula here referred to being the whole
district between the friths of Tay and Forth, and which for-
merly went under the general name of Ross. — Old Statistical
Account. — The name is pronounced Caoross.

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