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been 'are,' we might have supposed it decisive."
The rest of this county consists of nine detached
portions scattered up and down in various parts of
Ross-shire, containing in all ahout 344 square
miles, or 220,5S6 acres. George, Viscount Tarbat,
afterwards Earl of Cromarty, who was secretary of
state, and clerk to the parliament of Scotland, in the
reign of James II., William and Mary, &c. procured
an act, in 1685, annexing several lands to the shire
of Cromarty. This act being afterwards repealed,
another was procured in 1698 — of which an extract
is here inserted in a Note — annexing some part of
his lands to the shire of Cromarty.* By this extra-
ordinary annexation, the shire of Cromarty has now
a territory fifteen times its former extent ; and its
valued rent has been increased threefold. But these
annexations consist of so many detached parts, that
a description of their boundaries would be exceed-
ingly irksome. It has been found necessary, in all
bills relating to roads, bridges, Sec., to include the
whole of these annexations in Ross-shire ; although,
from their being thus kept in the back-ground, very
great inconvenience has been often felt, both by the
counties of Ross and of Cromarty. A great part of
this shire now belongs to the Andersons of Udal,
and the family of Ross of Cromarty. The face of
the country is pleasant. A long ridge of hills ex-
tends the whole length, in the middle of the county,
having a fine declivity on either side towards the
shores of the friths. The higher grounds are mostly
rovered with heath ; but towards the shores the soil
is light and early. Cromarty contains only one town
— from which the county takes its name — which was
formerly a royal burgh, and 5 parishes. The language
spoken is generally Gaelic; but ninny speak that
broad Scottish which is commonly called the Buchan
or Aberdeenshire dialect. Freestone, granite, and
reddish-coloured porphyry, are almost the only min-
erals, if we except topazes similar to those of Cairn-
gorm, which are found in the parish of Kincardine.
Fisheries are very successfully carried on, and pearls
of considerable value are sometimes found in the
frith of Cromarty, where the river Conal falls into
that bay. The district is comprehended in the she-
riffdom of Ross-shire ; and a sheriff-substitute holds
courts every alternate Friday at the town of Cro-
marty. It now joins with the county of Ross in re-
turning a member to parliament. Constituencv in
1839, 103. Cromarty gave the title of Earl to a
branch of the Mackenzies of Seaforth. The family
came into favour in the reign of James VI., and hav-
ing been raised to a baronetcy, was, in the reign of
James II., elevated to the viscountcy of Tarbet.
Lord Tarbet was created Earl of Cromarty in 1702;
but the title was attainted in the person of George,
the 3d Earl, on account of his having engaged in the
rebellion of 1745. He was surprised and defeated by
* " Considering that, by act of parliament 1685, the barony of
Tarbat and several other lands in Ross-shire were dissolved
from it, and annexed to the shire of Cromarty, but. in 16S(i,
this said act of annexation was rescinded, on pretence that it
included lands not belonging to the Viscount Tarbat, in whose
favour the said annexation to Cromarty was made, and now,
the said Viscount desiring that only the 6aid barony of Tarbat,
and other lands in Ross-shire, which belong to him in pro.
perty, and are presently possessed by him, or by his brother,
or mother-in-law, in liferent, and by some wadsetters of his
property, should be annexed to the shire of Cromarty : their
Majesties, in favour of the said Viscount and his successors,
did, with consent. &c, rescind the said act 1G86, and, of new,
annexed the said barony of Tarbat, and all other lands in Ross-
shire, belonging in property to the said Viscount, and pos-
sessed, as said is, to the shire of Cromarty in all time coming,
and to all effects ; and as to any other lands contained in that
act 1685, not being of the barony of Tarbat, and not being his
other proper lands, and possessed in manner foresaid, they arc
to remain in the shire of Ross as formerly, notwithstanding of
this or the other act passed in the year 1685 ; but prejudice of
the said Viscount, his other jurisdictions in these lands, as ac-
cords," &c.
the Earl of Sutherland's militia, near Dunrobin
castle, on the day before the battle of Cullodeii ; and
being sent to London, was tried, and condemned to
be executed, but by great intercession his life was
spared, though his estate and honours were forfeited.
His son entered the Swedish service. He was com-
monly known as Count-Cromarty, and died in 1789.
At present the peerage is claimed by Sir Alexander
Mackenzie of Tarbet, Bart. The valued rent of
Cromarty shire is £12,897 Scots ; the real land rent
may be estimated at £7,000 sterling. Population,
in 1801, 3,052; in 1811, 5,481. In all the more re-
cent returns this shire is included with that of Ross :
which see.
CROMARTY, a parish in the above county;
about 7 miles in length, and from 1 to 4 in breadth ;
bounded by the frith of Cromarty on the north ;
by the Moray frith and the parish of Rosemarkie on
the east and south ; and by Resolis on the west.
The burn of Ethie defines the southern limits of
this parish. It flows in some places through a deep
picturesque ravine. On the banks of the frith the
surface is level ; but a ridge about 2 miles from the
coast, extends the whole length of the parish, above
which the ground is covered with heath and moss.
The soil is wet and moorish, which makes the
seasons late, and the crop uncertain. The coast to-
wards the east is bold and rocky : some of the cliffs
being nearly 250 feet perpendicular towards the sea;
the rest is flat and sandy. Population of the parish,
in 1801, 2,413; in 1831, 2,901. Houses 518. As-
sessed property, in 1815, £3,569. Estimated rental
,£3,300 This parish is in the presbytery of Cha-
nonry, and synod of Ross. Patron, the Crown.
Stipend £251 12s. 6d. ; glebe £15. Unappropriated
teinds £395 18s. 5d. There is a Gaelic church, the
minister of which has a stipend of £50 from Govern-
Cromarty, a neat and clean, but irregularly
built, town in the above parish; 19J miles north-
east of Inverness ; 1 1 south of Tain ; 10^ north-east
of Rosemarkie ; 21 east of Dingwall; and 175 north
by west of Edinburgh. It is situated upon a low
point of land which stretches out into the sea in- a
picturesque manner. The sea has made consider-
able encroachments on the east end of the town. It
was formerly a royal burgh, but was disfranchised by
an act of the privy-council of Scotland, in conse-
quence of a petition by Sir John Urquhart, proprietor
of the estate of Cromarty. The harbour of Cromarty,
inferior perhaps to none in Britain for safety, and a
commodious quay, were built at the joint expense of
Government and the proprietor of the estate of
Cromarty, in 1 785. Vessels of 350 or 400 tons may
lie in it in perfect security. A considerable trade in
sack cloth has been long established in Cromarty and
the neighbourhood. In 1807, this town sent to Lon-
don goods to the amount of £25,000. In the same
year Cromarty exported 112 tons of pickled pork
and hams, and 60 tons of dried cod fish. Its staple
trade was, until lately, the catching and curing of
herrings. The town has a weekly market on Fri-
days, and an annual fair. Here is a branch of the
Commercial bank. A large rocky cavern tinder the
South Sutor, called Macfarquhar's Bed, and a cave
which contains a petrifying well, are amongst the
natural curiosities. The hill of Cromarty is cele-
brated for the grandeur and extent of the prospect
from it. Population of the town, in 1801, 1,993;
in 1831, 2,215. Cromarty unites with Wick, Ding-
wall, Dornoch, Kirkwall, and Tain, in returning n
member to parliament. It is governed by a provost,
2 bailies, and 7 councillors, Parliamentary and
municipal constituency in 1839, 49: A steam-loat
from Leith touches here once a- week.

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