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south-east direction from the borders of Ayrshire,
and fetching a circiut round the village of Lochwin-
noch, turns east and falls into this loch on the wes-
tern side. The Dubbs connects it with Kilbirnie
loch. Castle- Semple loch was originally between
4 and 5 miles in length, and rather more than 1 in
breadth ; but it has been considerably lessened by
draining. It would appear, from the description of
Hamilton of Wishaw, that Lord Semple, then pro-
prietor of this lake and the adjoining lands, com-
menced to drain it in 16S0, or 1700. The estate
was sold by Hew, Lord Semple, in 1727. to Colonel
M'Dowall, a younger son of M'Dowall of Garthland,
who continued the plan of draining the lake, and, in
1735, had made great progress in doing so. Sub-
sequent proprietors have directed their attention to
the same object; and the effect has been the re-
covery of a great extent of fine rich meadow land.
In 1773, and in 1774, a canal was constructed of
nearly 2 miles in length, at an expense of ±'2,000,
by which above 400 acres of a very deep rich soil
was recovered. The loch still covers about 200
acres ; but considerably extends itself when flooded,
and during winter. The family of Semple was very
early in possession of the lands around this loch.
Robert Sympil was vassal in Elziotstoun on the south
side of the lake, under the high-steward of Scotland,
about 1220; and previous to 1309, Robert Sympil
of Elziotstoun was seneschal of Strathgrife. In 1474,
Sir William Sympil, Lord of Elziotstoun, obtained
a charter of the baronies of Elziotstoun and Castle-
toun — now Castle-Semple — from James III. Sir
John Sympil was raised to the dignity of the peer-
age, with the title of Lord Sympil, by James IV.,
in 1488. Elliotston and Castle-Semple continued
in possession of this ancient family till sold, as above-
mentioned, in 1727, after having been their propertv
for about 500 years. In 1813, William M'Dowall
of Garthland and Castle-Semple, sold his estate of
Castle-Semple to John Harvey, Esquire, of Jamaica.
Eastward of the lake, and on the south side, are the
remains of the old tower of Elliotston, the residence
of the Semple family previous to 1550. Its length
is 42 feet, and its breadth 33 feet over the walls.
Between 1547 and 1572, Robert, commonly called
the great Lord Semple, built a tower, called the
Peel — the ruins of whieb still exist — on a small
island on the lake, now forming part of the main-
land. This tower was in the form of an irregular
pentagon, having a sharp end towards the head of
the loch. " It was built," says Dr. Caldwell, "over
a strong arch, with bulwarks, gun-ports, &c, and is
environed with an immense cairn of stones round all
its foundations, to a considerable height above high
water."* The castle at Castletoun, or Castle-
Sernple, near the eastern end of the lake, was erected
or more probably rebuilt by the first Lord Semple,
who died in 1513. He changed its name -from Castle-
toun to Castle-Semple. In Bleau's Atlas, published
!n 1654, this castle is represented by a mark denot-
ing the largest size of castles. Crawford — who
wrote in 1710 — says, " Upon the brink of the loch
stands the castle of Sempill, the principal messuage
of a fair lordship of the same denomination, which
consists of a large court, part of which seems to be
a very ancient building, adorned with pleasant orch-
ards and gardens." In 1735 this ancient house was
demoUshed by Colonel M'Dowall, who erected an
elegant modern house on its site. Some workmen
repairing drains in 1830 found part of the foundations
of the castle still existing below ground. In 1504,
* A vpry fine copper cannon, having the arms of Scotland,
and J. R. S. engraved on it, was found in the loch near the
Peel. This relique is preserved at Castle-Semple. Tradition
reports that other aix guns were lost at the place where this
one was fuuud.
John Lord Semple founded a collegiate church near the
lake, having a provost, six chaplains or prebendaries,
two boys, and a sacristan. A stone in the outer wall
bears the letters R. L. S., and the arms of Sempill
and Montgomery. It was found, about 25 years ago,
near the site of the castle of Semple, and was placed
in its present- situation by the late Mr. Harvey.
The church is 71 feet 6 inches in length; 24 feet
3 inches in breadth ; and 15 feet 6 inches in height.
A portion at the east end, separated from the rest,
was used as a place of burial by the Semple family,
as it now is by Colonel Harvey the present pro-
prietor. Dr. Caldwell describes its walls as being
covered with ivy, and surrounded by a fine tall horn-
bean hedge. The roof was taken off about forty
years ago, and the ivy has penetrated into the inte-
rior. In ancient times there appears to have been a
village at this place, and a chapel in its neighbour-
hood dedicated to St. Bride. A small burn, which
here falls into the lake, is still named St. Bride's
burn ; and the residence of Colonel Harvey's factor,
St. Bride's mill. On the hill of Kenmure, which is
of secondary trap rock, there is an imitation of a
Chinese temple, from which a very fine view of the
lake and surrounding scenery can be obtained. It is
supposed to have been erected about the middle of
last century by one of the family of M'Dowall who
succeeded the Semples. — The Glasgow and Ayr
railway passes through the estate of Castle-Semple,
and in the immediate neighbourhood of the loch.
CASTLE-TIORAM See Ardxamtjrchax.
in the parish of Olrick in Caithness, at the head of
Dunnet bay, 5 miles east of Thurso, on the post-
road to Houna. There are extensive quarries of Hag
or paving-stone here. Population, in 1830, 311.
CASTLETON OF BRAEMAR, a small village
in the district of Braemar, parish of Crathy, Aberdeei 1-
shire, on the eastern bank of the rapid Clume, a little
above its junction with the Dee ; 57 miles west of Aber-
deen, and 15 from the Spittal of Glenshee, on the road
to Perth. There are two excellent inns here ; and the
place is well-known to tourists as forming convenient
head-quarters while visiting the Cairngorm moun-
tains, the Linn of Dee, Mar forest, or Strath Dee.
See articles Braemar, and Crathie.
CASTLETOWN, a parish forming the southern
extremity of the shire of Roxburgh, having the form
of an irregular triangle, and including a more extensive
area than any other parish in the south of Scotland.
It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Cavers,
Hobkirk, and Southdean ; on the east and south by
Northumberland and Cumberland ; and on the west
by Dumfries-shire. Its greatest length, from Fauna
hill, or from Needs Law, on the north-east, to its
southern extremity at the confluence of Mare burn with
Kershope water is 174 miles; and its greatest breadth
from Peel fell on the east to Tudhopehillonthe west,
is 14 miles. In history and poetry, and very frequently
still in conversation, its name is Liddesdale, from the
river Liddel, which runs through it fiom east to
south. f The upper or northern part is mountainous
and bleak ; but is generally dry, and affords good
sheep-pasturage. Some of the mountains both here,
and along the western and eastern boundaries, are
very high and precipitous. iMillenwood Fell, and
Windhead, are each nearly 2,000 feet in height ; and
t In the old histories, and geographical descriptions of Scot-
land, it is called * The County of Lidisdale ;' and, in old writs,
it is styled 'The Lordship 1 of that name. In December 1540,
the lands and lordship of the forest of Jedburgh, with the lands
and lordship of Lidiadale, were annexed to the Crown, by Act
of Parliament. And, on the 2d of January, 1(343, the lands and
dominion of Lidisdale appear to have been granted to Francis,
Earl of Buccleuch.

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