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in 1710 a 31 years' lease, commenced to smelt the ore
with pit-coal, and partially worked the three veins of
Old Glencrieff, Belton, and New Glencrieff, the last of
which only proved compensating. The new and large
Friendly Mining Society formed in 1721 a copartner-
ship with the smelting company, and got 15 years added
to the 20 which had yet to run of the lease. The two
companies jointly worked all the then known four veins
for 6 years, when they separated and pursued their object
in different localities. But in 1734 both companies
resigned their lease ; and Alexander Telfer became
lessee for the next 21 years. He worked the mines
vigorously, and made a richly compensating discovery
of a large knot of lead. In 1755, a new company, with
Mr Ronald Crawford at its head, became lessees of the
whole mines. Their first lease was only for 19 years ;
but they afterwards obtained an act of parliament ex-
tending it to 1812, and, previous to that year, they
were granted a new lease to expire in 1842. The new
company were enterprising and eminently successful ;
they discovered new and rich ramifications of the veins ;
and, when workable ore could no longer be found, they
erected a series of steam engines, some on the surface,
and some under ground, to carry off water from their
borings beneath level. So successful were the operations
that during 50 years 47,420 tons of lead were raised.
From 1842 the Duke of Buccleuch retained the mines
under his own management ; and they are now
worked by means of four powerful hydraulic engines
and one steam engine. All the most recent mining im-
provements have been introduced ; and the process of
refining the bars for the separating of the silver from
the lead is carried on simultaneously with the smelting.
The present yearly average of the output is 1000 tons
of lead and 5750 ounces of silver. Along with the
lead ore or lead glance are small quantities of man-
ganese, ochre, blende, brown hematite, copper pyrites,
green lead ore, white lead ore, and lead vitriol. A
chapel, built in 1755 by the mining company at a cost
of not more than £70 or £80, in 1848 was superseded
by a new church with 325 sittings, built and endowed
by the Duke of Buccleuch, and raised to quoad sacra
parochial status in 1S61. It was long ere a site could
be got for a Free church, and meanwhile Drs Chalmers,
Guthrie, Candlish, etc., preached on the hill-side ; but
at length a church, with 400 sittings, was opened in
1859. Wanlockhead has also a post office, a reading
society (1756), friendly and co-operative societies, an
Oddfellows' lodge, a young men's association, a school,
etc. Pop. of village (1831) 675, (1861) 743, (1871) 772,
(1881) 78S ; of q. s. parish (1881) §54.— Orel. Sur., sh.
15, 1864. See the Rev. J. Moir Porteous, D.D., God's
Treasure-Rouse in Scotland (Lond. 1876).
Wanlock Water, a stream of Sanquhar parish, Dum-
friesshire, running 5| miles north-westward till, after a
descent of 820 feet, it unites with Spango Water to
form Ckawiok Water.
Wardhouse. See Kennethhont.
Wardlaw. See Kirkhill.
Ward Law. See Etteiok.
Ward-of-Cruden. See Port Errol.
Warmanbie. See Annan.
Warthill, a modern Elizabethan mansion in Rayne
parish, Aberdeenshire, 1^ mile NNW of Warthill station
on the Turriff and Macduff branch of the Great North
of Scotland railway, this station being 3| miles NHW
of Inveramsay Junction and 24J NW of Aberdeen. Its
late owner, William Leslie, Esq. (1814-80), was Con-
servative member for Aberdeenshire 1861-66, and held
3960 acres in the county, valued at £4487 per annum.
—Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876.
Warwickhill House, a mansion in Dreghorn parish,
Ayrshire, 4 miles E by N of Irvine.
Washington, a village at the mutual boundary of
Coupar Angus parish, Perthshire, and Kettins parish,
Forfarshire, 3J miles NE of Coupar Angus town.
Waterbeck. See Middlebie.
Waterloo, a village in Cambusnethan parish, Lanark-
shire, 11 mile SE of Wishaw. Pop. (1871) 633, (1881) 855.
Waterloo. See Auciitergaven.
Watersay. See Vateesay.
Waterside, a village in Dalmellington parish, Ayr-
shire, on the right bank of the Doon, 3£ miles NW of
Dalmellington town. It has a railway station, a public
school, and ironworks (1847). Pop. (1871) 1681, (1881)
1473.— Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863.
Waterside, a hamlet in Fenwick parish, Ayrshire, 6
miles NE of Kilmarnock, under which it has a post office.
Waterside, a village in Kirkintilloch parish, Dum-
bartonshire, 2 miles ESE of the town. Pop. (1871) 426,
(18S1) 420.
Waterside, a mansion in Keir parish, Dumfriesshire,
near the influx of Scar Water to the Nith, 2i miles
SSE of Penpont.
Watling Street, a Roman road from Yorkshire in
England to the E end of Antoninus' Wall in Scotland.
After crossing the walls of Hadrian and Severus, and
passing the stations of Risingham and Roechester, it
arrives through a rugged country, by way of the Golden
Pots on Thirlmoor, at Chewgreen, the Roman post
nearest the Border. Approaching Scotland in a north-
north-westerly direction, it first touches it at Brownham
Law, near the sources of Coquet Water ; and, after
having divided the kingdoms for 1J mile, enters Scot-
land at Blackhall Hill, on the boundary between Oxnam
and Hounam in Roxburghshire. From this point it
runs 12 miles north-westward to the Teviot, near the
mouth of the Jed; forming for a long way the boundary
between Oxnam and Hounam ; traversing small wings
of Oxnam, Jedburgh, and Crailing — passing some
vestiges of a station, just before reaching the Teviot —
and crossing the Kail at Towford, the Oxnam a little
below Capehope, and the Jed a little below Bonjedward.
N ear the points respectively of its passage beyond the
Oxnam and beyond the Teviot, it seems to have sent off
one branch northward into Roxburgh, and another
deviatiugly round the N side of Penielheugh. The
main line, however, leads through the enclosures of
Mount Teviot ; passes along the S side of Penielheugh ;
forms for 3J miles the NE boundary of Aneruni ; passes
over St Boswell's Green, and crosses Bowden Burn above
Newton, where its remains are very distinct ; and thence
moves forward to the eastern base of the Eildon Hills,
and to the Tweed above Melrose and near Gattonside,
amidst an unusually large number of Roman and British
camps and fortifications. After passing the Tweed, the
road bends from its hitherto north-westerly to a northerly
direction ; proceeds up Melrose parish and the detached
and projecting section of Lauder, on a line nearly parallel
with the Leader, but inward from its vale ; passes Roman
stations at Chesterlee above Clackmae, and at Walls
near New Blainslee ; becomes very distinct throughout
1 J mile ; and then, about £ mile ENE of Chieldhelles
chapel, enters Lauderdale. The road appears to have
passed on the W side of Lauder town and E of Old
Lauder, where there are remains of a military station ;
and about 1$ mile onward it again becomes visible,
takes for a brief way the name of the Ox-road, and leads
up to a strong station, called Black Chester. From
this post it passes on by the W of Oxton, crosses the
western head-stream of the Leader, and leads on in a
distinctly marked line to the Roman station at Channel-
kirk ; thence it proceeds forward to far-seeing Soutra
Hill, in the small projecting district of Haddingtonshire ;
and descending thence it turns to the left, pursues a
north-westerly direction, and traverses the parishes of
Midlothian onward to Currie, which stands in a bend
of the Water of Leith, 6 miles SW of Edinburgh.
Between Soutra Hill and Currie, it crossed the South
Esk near Dalhousie Castle, and the North Esk near
Mavisbank, where many Roman antiquities have been
found ; and thence it pursued its course by Loanhead
and Straiton, which probably owe their names to its
neighbourhood, to Bow Bridge, at the E end of the
Pentland Hills. Beyond Currie it proceeded to the
naval station on the Forth at Cramond ; and thence it
crossed the Almond into Linlithgowshire, and passing
Barnbougle Hill, went along Ecklin Moor to Carriden.

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