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(298) Page 476 - WAL
WAMPHERFLAT
The ditch-like South Medwin creeps 3J miles south-
westward along all the Dunsyre and Carnwath boundary,
and the Mid Ditch or Biggab. Burn 1\ miles west-south-
westward along most of the south-eastern border, so that
the drainage goes partly to the Clyde and partly to the
Tweed. Along the South Medwin the surface declines
to 660, along Biggar Burn to 820, feet above sea-level ;
and thence it rises to 1010 feet near Hyndshillend, 1124
near Kingsknowes, 1272 near Borland, and 16S9 at
Black Mount on the Dolphinton border. The pre-
dominant rocks are eruptive, chiefly felspathic porphyry,
clinkstone, and greenstone ; but sandstone and limestone
also occur. The soil in the valleys is partly sandy,
partly a brownish earthy loam ; whilst that of the hill-
slopes is more adhesive in character, and partly extremely
fertile. Nearly 63 acres are under wood ; 2806 are
arable ; and the rest is either rough pasture or moorland.
Celts, stone coffins, and a bronze tripod have been dis-
covered in the parish ; and on the high ground of
Cocklaw farm are vestiges of an ancient circular camp.
The parish of Walston anciently belonged to the lordship
of Both well, and followed for three centuries the fortunes
of that lordship ; and it constituted a barony, consisting
of the two lands or designations of Walston and Elgirig
or Elsrickle. The name Walston is supposed to have
been derived either from Waldef, a brother of the first
Earl of Dunbar, or from one or more of some copious
wells in the neighbourhood, one of which bears the
designation of Siller Well, while another was anciently
in some repute for its medicinal properties. The pro-
perty is mostly divided between the Lockharts of Lee
and Mr Woddrop of Garvald House. Walston is in the
presbytery of Biggar and the synod of Lothian and
Tweeddale ; the living is worth £195. The parish
church, built in 1789, and renovated in 1881, contains
145 sittings. There is a Free church at Elsrickle ; and
Walston public and Elsrickle schools, with respective
accommodation for 60 and 64 children, had (1884) an
average attendance of 36 and 35, and grants of £32, 2s.
and £30, 9s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £2597, (1885) £3363,
3s. Pop. (1801) 383, (1841) 493, (1861) 480, (1871) 425,
(1881) 340.— Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864.
Wampherflat, a small estate, with a mansion, in the
parish and near the town of Lanark.
Wamphray, a parish of Upper Annandale, Dumfries-
shire, containing Wamphray station on the main line
of the Caledonian railway, 8 J miles N by W of Lockerbie,
5J SSE of Beattock, and 6| S by E of Moffat, under
which there is a post office of Wamphray. It is bounded
N by Moffat, E by Hutton, S by Applegarth, and W by
Johnstone and Kirkpatrick-Juxta. Its utmost length,
from N by E to S by W, is 8| miles ; its utmost width
is 3g miles ; and its area is 204 square miles or 13,189f
acres, of which 56 are water. The river Annan flows
5h miles south-by-eastward along or close to all the
western boundary ; and Wamphray Water, rising in the
northern extremity of the parish at an altitude of 1480
feet, runs 8J miles south-south-westward through the
interior till, after a total descent of 1210 feet, it falls
near Wamphray station into the Annan, another of
whose affluents, Dalmakeddar Burn, rising at 630 feet,
runs 4 miles south-by-westward and westward, for the
last If mile along the southern boundary. On Bellcraig-
linn Burn, which runs to the Annan along the Moffat
boundary, the linn, whence it takes its name, has much
mimic sublimity and some fine accompaniments of land-
scape, and draws numerous visitors from among the
- wellers ' at Moffat ; while three cascades upon Wam-
phray Water, not far distant from one another, and bear-
ing the names of the Pot, the Washing Pan, and Dubb's
Caldron, are justly admired for their mingled pictur-
esqueness and grandeur. In the south-western corner
of the parish, at the influx of Dalmakeddar Burn to the
Annan, the surface declines to 228 feet above sea-level,
and thence it rises to 846 feet at Blaze Hill, 1272 at
Fingland Fell, 975 at Dundoran, 1587 at Laverhay
Height, 1561 at Craig Fell, and 2256 at Loch Fell,
which culminates on the meeting-point of Wamphray,
Moffat, Eskdalemuir, and Hutton parishes. All the
476
WANLOCKHEAD
eastern border is the watershed of a mountain-range,
whose summits possess elevations of from upwards of
2200 to about 800 feet above sea-level, and almost regu-
larly diminish in altitude as the ridge recedes from the
N. Another ridge, not very much inferior in mean
height, and very similar in progressive diminution, runs
parallel to the former along the centre of the parish ;
but, a little S of the middle, is cloven quite through by
the vale of Wamphray Water, debouching to the W.
The low grounds are principally a considerable band
along the Annan, and some small belts along the minor
streams ; and over most of their breadth they rise at
different gradients to the skirts of the hills, so as to form
hanging plains. The heights are variously conical,
elongated, and tabular ; those in the N are partly green
and partly heathy ; and those in the S either are in
tillage, or produce rich and plentiful pasturage. The
valleys have a pleasant appearance, and are in some
places picturesque. The predominant rocks are grey-
wacke and Old Eed Sandstone. The soil along the
Annan is a deep alluvium, and that in other districts is
for the most part either a light-coloured clay or a light
loam of different shades. About one-fourth of the entire
area is in tillage ; 270 acres are under wood ; and the rest
is chiefly hill-pasture, but partly heath and moss. Near
Poldean (once a famous hostelry) a large grey monolith
marks the spot where Charles II. halted with his army
on the march to Worcester (1651) ; and the highway
here follows the line of a Roman road. Not far from
the parish church some fine Scotch firs adorn the site of
the strong old tower of Wamphray, which in the latter
half of the 16th century was held by William Johnstone,
the 'Galliard.' His horse-stealing raid and his death,
with Willie o' the Kirkhill's revenge for the same,
form the theme of a well-known ballad, The Lads of
Wamphray. Other antiquities are the site of a stone
circle and traces of Roman and Caledonian camps.
Robert Jardine, Esq., M.P., whose seat, Castlemilk, is
in St Mungo parish, is the chief proprietor ; 2 others hold-
ing each an annual value of more, and 6 of less, than
£500. Wamphray is in the presbytery of Lochmaben
and the synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth £305.
The parish church, If mile NE of Wamphray station,
is prettily situated on the left bank of Wamphray Water,
but itself is a plain structure of 1834, containing 248
sittings. Over the W door is a curious sculptured
stone from the pre-Reformation chapel of Barnygill, 3
miles higher up the glen. Near the station is Wam-
phray U.P. church; and Johnstone and Wamphray
Free church stands just across the Annan in Johnstone
parish. Wamphray public and Newton girls' schools,
with respective accommodation for 88 and 53 children,
had (1884) an average attendance of 62 and 23, and
grants of £41, 4s. and £20, 15s. 6d. Valuation (1860)
£4204, (1885) £6759, 9s. 3d. Pop. (1801) 423, (1831)
580, (1861) 559, (1871) 505, (1881) 455.— Ord. Sur.,
shs. 10, 16, 1864.
Wandell. See Lamington.
Wanlockhead, a mining village in the NE corner of
Sanquhar parish, NW Dumfriesshire, 1£ mile SSW of
Leadhills, 6J miles WSW of Elvanfoot station, 8i SSW
of Abingtonfand 8 J ENE of the town of Sanquhar. It
lies, 1350 feet above sea-level, at the head of the
lonely glen of Wanlock Water, in one of the bleakest
scenes of the Southern Highlands, the chief of the big,
smooth hills that rise around it being Wanlock Dod
(1808 feet), Green Lowthek (2403), Lowther Hill (2377),
and Stood Hill (1925). The mines, which alone could
people so cheerless and elevated a region, are continuous
with those of Leadhills on the Lanarkshire side of the
frontier; and jointly with them, they extend to a cir-
cumference fully 4 miles in diameter. The Wanlock-
head mines were worked as early as 1512. Gold was
the primary object of search, and has uot yet ceased to
be found. Sir James Stampfield opened the lead mines
about the year 1680, and worked them on a small scale
till the Revolution. Matthew Wilson obtained in 1691
a 19 years' lease, and successfully worked the vein called
Margaret's ; whilst a mining company, having procured

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