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is described by the Queen, under date 22 Sept. 1873, as
' a wild, picturesque, and desolate place in a sort of
wild glen with green hills rising around. . . . There
are a few straggling houses and a nice hotel at ' the
station.' See Clifton and Daley. — Ord. Sur., sh. 46,
Tyne, a river of Lothian, originating in Edinburgh-
shire, but belonging almost wholly to Haddingtonshire,
and draining the larger part of its area. The stream —
with the characteristic unsettledness of the nomen-
clature of Haddingtonshire streams — gathers many
head- waters, and runs a large part of its course before
its name ceases to be capricious and disputed. One
early rivulet called the Tyne issues from a lochlet in
the extreme E of Borthwick parish, and has a run of 7
miles northward before it enters Haddingtonshire. Over
this distance it divides Borthwick on the W from
Crichton on the E, sweeps past the village of Ford, and
cuts Cranston into nearly equal parts ; and after entering
Haddingtonshire it describes the segment of a circle
from a northerly to an easterly direction, over a distance
of between 4 and 5 miles, through the parishes of
Ormiston and Pencaitland, to a confluence J mile E of
Easter Pencaitland, whence all debate ceases respecting
the application of the name. Another rivulet, which
claims to be the infant Tyne, is itself a collection of
four or five head-streams, which rise in Borthwick, in
Fala, in Soutra, and in the extreme S of Humbie, and,
after courses of from 4 to 6| miles, attain a general con-
fluence f mile below Humbie church ; and after this
confluence the stream proceeds 3 miles northward to
join the competing head-rivulet of the Tyne — less than
it in length of run, but considerably greater in volume
of water. The Tyne, now of quite a fixed name, flows
north-eastward, nearly across the centre of the lowlands
of the county, to the sea at Tyninghame. 2| miles
NW of Dunbar, performing a run of 16 miles, or 28 if
measured from its remotest source. Till it enters
Haddington parish it moves alternately on and near the
boundaries between Pencaitland and Gladsmuir on the
left and Haddington on the right ; and it afterwards
moves principally in the interior of Haddington,
Prestonkirk, and Whitekirk. Its banks are studded
with numerous and beautiful mansions, with the capital
of the county, and with the villages of Pencaitland,
Nisbet, Samuelston, Abbey, East Linton, Prestonkirk,
and Tyninghame. Its current is placid, in many
places dull and sluggish ; but near East Linton it forms
a kind of rapid, and tumbles over some broken rocks.
Its whole course is through a rich agricultural country,
abounding in all the embellishments of culture, but quite
devoid of bold or striking features. Proportionately to
its length of run it is a small stream, and viewed intrin-
sically it scarcely claims to be more than a rivulet; but
it is subject to inundations of such suddenness and
magnitude, as, if not restrained by embankments, would
work enormous havoc. (See Haddington.) The tide
affects it over a distance of 2 miles, and expands at
high-water into an extensive lake on what are called
the Salt-Greens, in front of Tyninghame House. The
Greens form a very fine feature in the grounds around
that magnificent residence, and are now a glittering
sheet of water, and now an expanse of verdant sward
dotted over with sheep, and, in summer, thickly
powdered with sea-pink. The river is of much value
for driving corn-mills. Its trout fishing is often very
good ; and salmon and sea-trout also ascend it. — Ord.
Sur., shs. 32, 33, 1857-63. See Sir T. Dick Lauder's
Scottish Rivers (Edinb. 1874).
Tyne, an important English river, two of whose head-
streams rise in the S of Roxburghshire, on the eastern
slope of Carlin-Tooth, near the source of Jed Water,
and run 5J furlongs eastward through Southdean parish
to the Border.
Tynecastle, an Edinburgh district, on the road from
the Haymarket to Gorgie, near the Dairy Cemetery, and
2 miles SW of the General Post Office. It is the seat of
the Albert Works, directed by Mr Wm. Scott Morton,
an architect of special skill in decorative work. Here,
besides stained glass, painted tiles, art furniture, etc.,
is manufactured the beautiful ' Tynecastle tapestry,'
which Mr Scott Morton invented, and which consists of
coarse paper-backed canvas, dyed and decorated in a
great variety of ways to suit for walls, ceilings, or friezes.
Tynehead, a post office and a station in Crichton
parish, Edinburghshire, on the Waverley route of the
North British railway, 16 miles SE of Edinburgh.
Tyninghame, an ancient parish of Haddingtonshire,
annexed to Whitekirk since 1761, and containing
Tyninghame village, 2 miles NE of Prestonkirk or East
Linton, under which it has a post office. The name,
which means 'the hamlet on the Tyne,' graphically
describes the position of the village, 300 yards from the
northern margin of the Tyne, on a beautiful piece of
ground which gently slopes to the river's edge. The
original church was founded by Bathere the anchorite,
better known as St Baldred of the Bass, who died in
756, when, according to Bellenden, 'the parishioners
of Auldham, Tyningham, and Preston contended whilk
of them should have his body to decore their kirk ; but
on the morrow they fand, by miracle of God, three beirs
with three bodies, na thing discrepant frae others in
quantity, colour, nor raiment. And so the body of this
haly man lies be miracle in all the three kirks.' In
941, according to Hoveden and the Chronica de Mailros,
Anlaf the Dane spoiled the church of St Baldred, and
burned the village of Tyninghame ; and in 1094 a
charter of Duncan granted to St Cuthbert, i. e. , to the
church of Durham, Tyninghame and five other places
in Haddingtonshire, three of which — Aldham, Scougal,
and Knowes — are in the present united parish. The
church of Tyninghame enjoyed of old the privilege of
sanctuary. Patrick de Leuchars, who was rector of
it in the reign of David II., rose to be Bishop of
Brechin and chancellor of Scotland ; and George
Brown, who was rector in the reign of James III.,
was raised by the party who overthrew that monarch
to be Bishop of Dunkeld, and joined them in hunting
the king to death on the field of Sauchieburn. The
manor of Tyninghame, with the patronage of the
church, anciently belonged to the Bishops of St
Andrews, and was included in their regality lying on
the S side of the Forth. In 1553, it appears to have
been conferred by Archbishop Hamilton on St Mary's
College in St Andrews ; but in 1565 a complaint was
made by the parishioners to the General Assembly, that
though they paid their tithes to the college, they had
as yet received from it the benefit neither of preaching
nor of administration of sacraments. The manor, held
for a time under the archbishop by the Earl of Hadding-
ton, in 1628 was obtained by him in chartered right
under the Great Seal ; and it thence became the home-
domain, the beautiful seat, gradually the richly embel-
lished forest and park-ground of the noble family. The
estate is famed in the E of Scotland for the extent and
singular beauty of its woods and its holly-hedges.
More than 800 acres wave with trees, chiefly of the
various hardwood species, and arranged in the most
tasteful forms of forest. In 1705, Thomas, sixth Earl
of Haddington, instigated by his countess, the sister of
the first Earl of Hopetoun, commenced planting opera-
tions on a great scale ; and he must, in reference to
their date and their influence, and to the efforts which
he used to provoke imitations of his example, be re-
garded as the originator of the thousands of fine expanses
of modern plantation which now so generally beautify
Scotland. His first exploit was to plant Binning Wood,
a forest of 400 acres, over the whole face of what was
then a moorish common called Tyninghame Moor. The
trees were arranged in thirteen rides or avenues, con-
verging at four different points in an open glade. The
Earl next drew sheltering belts along the enclosures of
fields ; and then— boldly putting to the test a received
opinion, that no trees would grow near the shore — he
planted some expanses of sandy ground upon the beach.
Finding that his trees grew and were thriving, he
determined to ' fight no more with the cultivation of
bad land, but to plant it all.' Thus arose a forest which

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