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TROQUEER
exceeded half a million. Troon ranked as a creek of
Irvine till 1863, when it was constituted a head port.
The total tonnage of vessels belonging to it has dwindled
from 5380 in 1873 to 2870 in 1878, and 2539 in 1884,
viz., 9 sailing ships of 2389 tons, and 2 steamers of 150.
And a decrease is likewise shown in the following table,
which gives the tonnage of vessels that entered and
cleared from and to foreign countries and coastwise,
with cargoes and in ballast : —
Entered.
Cleared.
Year.
| British. Foreign.
Total.
British.
Foreign.
Total.
1873
1879
1883
! 291,715 j 58,545
! 309,620 20,449
j 106,551 j 2,016
350,260
330,069
108,567
285,988 1 57,714
294,323 1 19,842
105,985 ! 2,015
1
343,702
314,165
108,000
Shipbuilding is carried on to some extent, 6 vessels, of
182 tons each on an average, having been built here
during the five years 1879-83.
Sweeping in a graceful curve from the central height
of the peninsula across the isthmus, and stretching for
a considerable extent along the South Beach, the town
is a scattered and healthy place, with dry soil and
bracing atmosphere, and with beautiful views of Arran,
Ailsa Craig, and all the Ayrshire coast from Turnberry
Castle to Ardrossan. It has a post office, with money
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments,
branches of the British Linen Co. and Union Banks,
13 insurance agencies, 2 hotels, a gas company, a
custom house, a reading room, a hospital, a lifeboat
(1871), etc. Places of worship are a quoad sacra,
parochial church (1838 ; 900 sittings), a handsome
Gothic Free church (1857 ; 600), a U.P. church (1843 ;
500), and St Patrick's Roman Catholic chapel-school
(1883). Troon Academy (1840) is rented by the School
Board ; and the Fullarton and Portland public schools
have respective accommodation for 180 and 160 children.
The former was built in 1867 as a Free Church school,
and the latter in 1875 at a cost of £2700. Troon is a
favourite resort of summer visitors, having good sea-
bathing, and a splendid reach of sands on both its
northern and its southern shore. In 1878 part of its
links, here known as ' knowes,' was laid off as a golfing-
ground, and a golf club started. The quoad sacra
parish is in the presbytery of Ayr aud the synod of
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £340. Pop. of
q. s. parish (1881) 2587 ; of town (1836) 1088, (1841)
1409, (1851) 2404, (1861) 2427, (1871) 2790, (1881)
2383, of whom 1278 were females. Houses (1881) 409
inhabited, 37 vacant.— Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. See
the Rev. J. Eirkwood's Troon and Dundonald (Kilmar-
nock, 1875 ; 3d ed. 1881).
Troqueer, a parish of E Kirkcudbrightshire, con-
taining the burgh of Maxwelltown. It is bounded
N by Terregles, E by Dumfries and Caerlaverock,
SW by Newabbey, and W by Lochrutton. Its
utmost length, from NNW to SSE, is 8J miles ; its
utmost breadth is 4g miles ; and its area is 19J square
miles or 12,448 acres, of which 567| are foreshore and
112 water. The Nith, here broadening to a tidal
estuary, curves 8| miles south-by-eastward along or
near to all the Dumfriesshire border ; Cargen Water
and Crooks Pow run across the interior to the Nith ;
and March Burn, with continuation to the Nith by
Newabbey Pow, traces most of the south-western
boundary. The surface, generally level throughout the
N and E, has yet some agreeable though gentle
diversities, and from S to N attains 191 feet near Airds,
639 near Auehenfad House, 817 at Marthrown Hill, and
125 at Corbelly Hill. The last of these in particular,
rising at the S end of Maxwelltown, and opposite the
lower part of Dumfries, is a lovely eminence, crowned
by the fine convent and church (1881-84) of the Im-
maculate Conception, and commanding a delightful pro-
spect. The congregation of burghal buildings spreads
away from the hill's base, sectioned off into two bodies
by the river, yet united by three bridges. The steeples,
452
TROQUEER
some churches, one or two civic buildings, Burns's
mausoleum, and the gorgeous assembly of elegant
monuments in the cemetery, look out from among the
general mass, and challenge individual attention. The
Crichton Institution stands on an undulating declivity
below the town ; and a profusion of mansions, villas,
and cottages ornies are scattered over the face of all the
burgh's environs on either side of the river. A broad
and luxuriant valley stretches away on the N till it
becomes narrowed and shut in by cultivated hills, and
overhung at the extremity by the conical form of
Queensberry. The same valley, flattened down over
much of its area into dead level, and cut into a sort of
tesselated work of brown and green by Lochar Moss, is
screened at 4 miles' distance on the E by a range of
hills over which the plough passes yearly. The shining,
silver-sheened Nith directs the eye southward among
grounds rich as a garden, and points onward to the
sombre, cloud-capped Criffel, the far expanse of the
Solway Firth, and the blue dim outlines of Skiddaw
and other Cumberland mountains. In all this there is
nothing sublime, or even strikingly picturesque ; yet
there are a calm beauty and a certain rich fulness which
completely win the heart and live most soothingly in
the imagination. The general surface of the parish is
naturally sectioned into three parts by three ranges of
elevations, which extend parallel one to another, and
at almost equal distances, like waves of the sea. The
first range rises with a gradual acclivity from the Nith,
lies all within the burgh-roods of Maxwelltown, and,
in so far as not occupied by the streets of the burgh,
presents a richly cultivated aspect. The tract between
this range and the second is traversed from end to end
by sluggish Cargen "Water, and is all in a state of high
culture. The second range rises to a greater height
than the first, extends considerably farther to the S,
and is likewise all under cultivation. A large portion
of the tract between the second range and the third is
either moss or meadow, in an unsightly state, but
largely capable of reclamation. The third range is
much higher than the second, extends from end to end
of the parish, and is mainly under tillage, but partly
occupied by extensive plantations. The predominant
rock of all the ranges is mica slate, running into
syenite, with occasional protrusions of granite ; and
the soil of both the slopes and level grounds is mostly
fertile, but ranges in character from reclaimed moss to
rich loam. The chief antiquity is a moat, or circular
artificial mound, supposed to have been anciently a seat
of courts of justice. Besides numerous villas of com-
modious and elegant character, the principal estates and
mansions — all noticed separately — are Cargen, Car-
ruchan, Dalskairth, Goldielea, Kirkconnell, Mabie,
Mavis Grove, and Terraughtie. The present parish of
Troqueer comprises the ancient parish of Troqueer
and the northern part of the ancient parish of Kirk-
connell. The ancient church of Troqueer belonged to
the abbey of Tongland, and passed in 1588 to William
Melville, the commendator of that monastery, but was
annexed in 1605 to the see of Galloway. The parish of
Kirkconnell was suppressed in the reign of Charles I.,
and divided between Troqueer and Newabbey. Its
church stood in the Troqueer section, 1J mile NE of
Newabbey village. The Rev. John Blackadder (1615-
85), who figured conspicuously among the ministers
ejected at the introduction of prelacy, was minister of
Troqueer from 1652 till 1662. Giving off the quoad
sacra parish of Maxwelltown, Troqueer is in the
presbytery and synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth
£475. Its parish church, near the right bank of the
Nith, 7 furlongs SSE of the centre of Maxwelltown,
contains 840 sittings. Four public schools — Drumsleet,
Lauricknowe, Maxwelltown, and Whinnyhill — with re-
spective accommodation for 127, 300, 359, and 78 chil-
dren, had (1884) an average attendance of 57, 284,
245, and 24, and grants of £54, lis. 6d., £277, 4s.,
£238, 19s. Id., and £22, 18s. 6d. Valuation (1860)
£17,509, (1885) £32,095, 12s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 2774,
(1831) 4665, (1861) 4743, (1871) 5402, (1881) 5524, of

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