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gress. The great ornament of the town is its public
school, which cost £6500, and was opened on 8 March
1877. It is a stone Elizabethan edifice, with clock-
tower and spire, and was designed by Mr Starforth of
Glasgow. Stiell's Institution, 5 furlongs N of the town,
was built in 1821-22 at a cost of £3000, from a plan by
Mr Burn. Till 1884 it provided a free education to
»me 150 children, having been endowed by George
Stiell, a smith and builder in Edinburgh, and a native
of Tranent ; but the funds will now be expended in
bursaries and scholarships for the district, and in
making special provision for secondary education in
connection with the public school, the boarding and
clothing of a few poor children, and the free education
of many others. A branch of the Royal Bank now
occupies the new premises (1874) of the City of Glasgow
Bank ; and the town has besides a post office, with
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments,
gasworks, 2 inns, a reading-room, a public hall, a
volunteer corps, etc. Waterworks, costing £7000, and
capable of supplying 300,000 gallons per diem, were
opened on 10 May 1883. The water is drawn from
Crichton springs, about 8 miles off. There is a small
iron-foundry and agricultural implement works ; but
weaving, nailmaking, brewing, candle-making, and
straw-plaiting are all extinct ; and the inhabitants are
principally tradesmen, coal-miners, and day-labourers.
Queen Mary was once in Tranent, as noticed under
Seton ; and Colonel Gardiner was borne to the manse
from the field of Prestonpans. He was buried at the
W end of the old church, but no tombstone now marks
his grave, which is included v.'ithin the present church.
In the 'No Militia' riot of August 1797 eleven persons
or more were killed and twelve wounded. A police
burgh under the General Police and Improvement Act
(Scot.) of 1S62, Tranent is governed by a senior and
five junior commissioners. Pop. (1851) 2096, (1861)
2257, (1871) 2306, (1881) 2235, of whom 1101 were
females. Houses (1S81) 457 inhabited, 32 vacant, 4
The parish, containing also Elphinstone village and
the conjoint fishing-village of Cockenzie and Port-
Seton, is bounded N by the Firth of Forth, E by Glads-
muir and Pencaitland, S by Ormiston and by Cranston
in Midlothian, W by Inveresk in Midlothian, and NW
by Prestonpans. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 4J
miles ; its breadth varies between If and 3J miles ; and
its area is 6176f acres, of which 258J are foreshore.
The coast-line, 2§ miles in extent, is all quite flat,
except for two greenstone dikes, at Cockenzie and E of
Port-Seton, and has a beautiful beach of fine sand. The
interior looks, in some views, to be almost level, but
really rises southward from the shore, with slow gradient
and gentle undulations, attaining 475 feet at Falside
Hill and 492 near Elphinstone. The rocks belong to
the Carboniferous Limestone series ; and, owing to the
seams cropping out at the surface, coal has been worked
here for upwards of six centuries. Some time between
1210 and 1219, Seyr de Quinci granted a coal pit at
Preston to the monks of Newbattle— the earliest notice
of coal mining in Scotland ; and in 1547 the inhabitants
took refuge in the coalpits a few days before the battle
of Pinkie. The chief existing mines are those of
Tranent and Elphinstone ; and from these large
quantities are sent out weekly by rail and sea, few
coals being more prized in the markets of Scotland.
Sandstone has been worked in several quarries ; and
trap is quarried for road-metal. The soil is partly
light and sandy, partly reclaimed morass, but chiefly
a rich loam, inferior to none in Scotland. Excepting
some 50 acres of sandy downs on the coast, and
100 or so of plantation, the entire area is regularly
or occasionally in tillage, and wears a finely cultivated
aspect. The ancient parish comprehended all Preston-
pans (till 1595), and considerable parts of Pencaitland
and Gladsmuir ; but did not comprise the barony or
ancient parish of Seton, which was annexed to it in
1580. Bankton, Elphinstone Tower, Falside Castle,
St Germains, and the palace and church of Seton are
all noticed separately. Eight proprietors hold each an
annual value of £500 and upwards, and eight of between
£100 and £500. Giving off the quoad sacra parish of
Cockenzie since 1885, Tranent is in the presbytery of
Haddington and the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ;
the living is worth £400. The three public schools of
Tranent, Cockenzie, and Elphinstone, with respective
accommodation for 557, 392, and 154 children, had
(1884) an average attendance of 419, 293, and 133,
and grants of £366, 12s. 6d., £244, 10s., and £108.
Valuation (1860) £18,252, (1875) £27,185, (1885)
£24,631. Pop. (1801) 3046, (1831) 3620, (1861) 4647,
(1871) 4852, (1881) 5198, of whom fully 1750 are in
Cockenzie quoad sacra parish. — Orel. Sur., shs. 33, 32,
1863-57. See P. M'Neill's Tranent and its Surround-
ings (Edinb. 1883 ; 2d ed. 1884).
Traprain Law, a conspicuous conical hill in Preston-
kirk parish, Haddingtonshire, 4J miles E by S of
Haddington, and If mile SSW of East Linton. Rising
724 feet above sea-level, it forms a beautiful and far-
seen feature in the rich champaign landscape around it ;
and, from its summit, it brings under the eye of a
spectator nearly the whole Firth of Forth, a wide
expanse of the German Ocean, and part, it is said, of
no fewer than thirteen counties. Its ancient name was
Dunpender, from two Gaelic words which signify ' a
steep hill ; ' and this name is quite descriptive of its
character. On the S side it rises almost sheer up from
the plain in one grand perpendicular ascent ; and on
other sides, though admitting sheep, and affording
them excellent pasturage, it is too steep to be a grazing-
ground for black cattle. Its composition is a slaty
clinkstone, so seamed as to be irregularly columnar,
and occasionally merging from a clouded brown to a
porphyritic appearance ; and towards the summit the
clinkstone passes into greenstone of a bluish-grey hue,
and slightly granulated with hornblende. — Ord. Sur.,
sh. 33, 1863.
Traquair, a village and a parish of E Peeblesshire.
The village, of some importance during the 12th century,
but now dwindled down to a mere hamlet, stands 1J
mile S of Innerleithen, near the right bank of Quair
"Water, 5 furlongs from its junction with the Tweed,
which is near that point crossed by a wooden bridge
giving access to Innerleithen.
The parish was formed in 1674 by incorporating with
St Bryde's all that portion of the suppressed parish of
Kailzie which lay S of the Tweed. It thus took the
name Traquair, meaning the hamlet on the Quair or
winding rivulet. It consists of a main body and a
detached section. The former is bounded N by Inner-
leithen, and on its other sides by the Selkirkshire
parishes of Yarrow and Peebles (detached) ; and is
intersected from the S to within 2 furlongs of its N
boundary by a tongue of Yarrow, 2 miles long and 1£
mile broad at its N and broadest end. The length of
the main body, from its extreme NE to its extreme SW
point, is 8J miles ; and its greatest breadth is 5J miles.
The detached section lies from | to H mile W from the
main portion, from which it is separated by Yarrow
(detached) ; is wedge-shaped, tapering towards the S,
and bounded N and NE by Innerleithen, N and NW
by Peebles, and SE and SW by Selkirkshire (Yarrow
and Peebles detached) ; and has an extreme length of
3 j miles, and a breadth across the N of 2J miles. The
Tweed winds along the N boundaries for 3| miles of the
W and smaller portion, and, after passing for 3| miles
between Innerleithen and Selkirkshire (Yarrow), for 5f
miles along that of the larger portion. Quair Water,
its affluent, gathers its waters from the slopes of Slake
Law (2229 feet), Dun Rig (2433), and Whiteknowe
Head (1676) in the SW, and follows a tortuous course
through the middle of the parish. Of its numerous
small tributaries the principal are Newhall, Curly, and
Fingland Burns, all rising among the hills in the S.
The whole of the Quair valley is dotted with lovely
birches, relics of the once famous Ettrick Forest. It
was a clump of these near the village of Traquair of
which Crawford sang in Tlie Bush aboon Traquair.

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