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wise, with cargoes and also — for the four last years
ballast : —
i — in
Of the total, 440 vessels of 32,948 tons, that entered
in 1880, 4 of 214 tons were steamers, 26 of 1845 tons
were in ballast, and 378 of 26,653 tons were coasters ;
whilst the total, 416 of 31,128 tons of those that cleared,
included 4 steamers of 214 tons, 303 ships in ballast of
22,968 tons, and 349 coasters of 25,049 tons. The trade
is mainly, then, an import coastwise one, and coal is the
chief article of import— 38,822 tons in 1879 ; whilst ex-
ports are grain, cattle, salmon, herrings (21,785J barrels
to the Continent in 1879), etc., the foreign and colonial
imports amounting in 1880 to £36,293, the exports to
£45,840, the customs to £1808. Banff also is head of the
fishery district between Buckie and Fraserburgh, in which,
during 1879, there were cured 29,110 barrels of white
herrings, besides 156,632 cod, ling, and hake — taken by
512 boats of 4380 tons, the persons employed being 1485
fishermen and boys, 46 fish-curers, 60 coopers, and 1026
others ; and the total value of boats, nets, and lines,
being estimated at £44,558. The herring catch has been
returned at 15,208 cransin 1877, 14,781 in 1878, 21,400
in 1879, and 25,558 in 1880. A Morton's patent slip,
for ships of 300 tons, has been in use here since 1836 ;
and, during 1875-80, 65 sailing vessels of 11,760 tons
were built within the jurisdiction of the port. There
are further a tobacco, a chemical manure, and a rope and
sail factory, 2 woollen mills, a tannery, an iron foundry,
a brewery, a distillery, a timber yard, and a brick-field.
Friday is market-day ; and fairs are held on the Friday
before May 26, the first Friday of August, old style, and
the Friday before Nov. 22.
A traditional residence of Malcolm Ceannmor (1058-
93), Banff certainly is older than the reign of Malcolm
IV., who signed a charter at it in 1163. A charter of
William the Lyon two years later refers to it as a royal
burgh, and in its privileges of royalty it was confirmed
by Robert Bruce (1324), Robert II. (1372), and James
VI. (1581). Its part in history has been insignificant.
In April 1644 it was pillaged by the anti-Covenanting
Lairds of Gight, Newton, and Ardlogie, with forty other
' brave gentlemen,' and again in the following March by
the Marquis of Montrose, who, 'marching to Banff,
plundered the same pitifully, no merchant's goods or
gear left ; they saw no man in the street but was stripped
naked to the skin. Some two or three houses were burned,
but no blood shed, and so they left Banff. ' Cumberland's
troops, en route for Culloden, bivouacked round Duff
House, then building, on 10 Nov. 1746, hanged two sus-
pected spies, and destroyed the Episcopal chapel ; in 1759
a French ship of war, appearing off the coast, caused a
prodigious scare. A flying visit from Dr Samuel John-
son in 1773, and a longer one from Burns in 1780, with
great floods of the Deveron (176S, 1799, 1829, and 1835),
well-nigh exhaust Banff's local history. One episode re-
mains, the trial and execution (1700-1) of James M'Pher-
son, as ' holdin, known, and reput an Egyptian. ' Son
of a Highland laird and Gipsy dam, he had been leader
of 27 armed men, with a piper playing at their head ;
and his target and huge mediaeval two-handed sword
are preserved at Duff House ; his fiddle-neck is an heir-
loom in the Cluny-Macpherson family. Burns tells us
how —
' Sae rantin'ly, sae wantonly,
Sae dauntin'ly gaed he :
He play'd a spring and danced it round
Below the gallows tree : ' —
and relics more precious than either sword or fiddle are
his rude reckless Rant, and the beautiful air to which he
set the same He played it as he walked to execution,
and at the gallows' foot proffered his instrument to who
would take it, but no man venturing, snapt it across his
knee (Groome's In Gipsy Tents, 2d ed. 1881 ; and Spald-
ing Club Miscellany, vol. iii., 1846). The town council
comprises a provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer,
3 councillors, etc. ; and, besides burgh, guildry, and
sheriff courts, quarter sessions of the peace are held on
the first Tuesdays of March, May, and August, and the
last Tuesday of October, sheriff small debt courts on
every Tuesday during session. "With Elgin, Cullen,
Inverurie, Kintore, and Peterhead, Banff returns one
member, its parliamentary constituency numbering 997,
and its municipal 514 in 1881, when the value of real
property within the parliamentary burgh amounted to
to £787. Pop. of municipal burgh (1782) 2380, (1831)
2935, (1851) 3557, (1S61) 3724, (1871) 4032, (1881) 4255 ;
of pari, burgh (1851) 6042, (1861) 6781, (1871) 7439,
(1881) S841.
The parish of Banff is bounded N for 2J miles by the
Moray Firth, E by Gamrie and a detached portion of
King Edward parish, Aberdeenshire, SE by Alvah, S by
Marnoch, W and NW by Boyndie ; and has an extreme
length from NE to SW of 6J miles, an extreme width
from E to W of 3| miles, and a land area of 6073 acres.
The Deveron traces the eastern, the Burn of Boyndie
the north-western, boundary ; and the latter receives two
rivulets from the interior, whose surface has a general
southward rise, attaining 274 feet at Gallow Hill, 308
near Upper Denhead, 512 at the Hill of Culbirnie, 466
at Ella, 456 near Ord church, and 573 at the Hill of Ord,
on the Alvah border. Clay slate and greywacke are
the prevailing rocks, but granite, mica slate, and Old Red
sandstone also occur ; and the granite and sandstone
have been quarried for building, while patches of fos-
siliferous Has clay have been worked for bricks and tiles.
The soils vary greatly with the rocks that they overlie,
and where resting on slate are argillaceous and very fer-
tile. Nearly four-fifths of the entire area are cultivated,
and some 260 acres are under wood, the remainder being
either pasture or waste. Inchdrewer Castle, a farmstead
now, 3 miles SW of the town, in 1713 was the scene of
the tragical death of George, Lord Banff, murdered, it
was thought, by thieving domestics, who then fired the
building to conceal their crime ; Duff House is the only
great mansion in the parish, of which it forms the most
conspicuous feature. The chief proprietors, with the
extent and yearly value of their estates within the shire,
are its owner the Earl of Fife (72,027 acres, £35,880 +
£300 for harbour), the Earl of Seafield, of Cullen House
(48,946 acres, £33,878 + £390 for harbour), and Sir Rt.
Jn. Abercromby of Forglen House (8053 acres, £6290) ;
1 other holding an annual value of £500 and upwards,
3 of between £100 and £500, 16 of from £50 to £100,
and 78 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Fordyce
and synod of Aberdeen, this parish is divided between
the quoad sacra parishes of Banff (4629 inhabitants in
1871 ; living, £480) and Oed. At Hilton and Head-
rooms, 4J and 7J miles SW of the town, are 2 public
schools under the landward board, which, with respective
accommodation for 140 and 100 children, had (1879) an
average attendance of 70 and 42, and grants of £55, Is.
and £38, 6s. Pop. (1801) 3572, (1821) 3855, (1831) 3711,
(1841) 3958, (1851) 4426, (1861) 4673, (1871) 5015, (1881)
5252.— Ord. Sxtr., sh. 96, 1876. See the late Jas. Im-
lach's History of Banff (Banff, 1868).
Banffshire, a maritime county in the NE of Scotland.
It is bounded N by the Moray Firth, E and S by Aber-
deenshire, W by Inverness and Elgin shires. The river
Deveron, first for about 3 miles down to Edinglassie,
next for 1£ mile at Rothiemay, next for 11 J miles down
to the vicinity of Banff, traces the boundary with Aber-
deenshire ; a series of mountain watersheds, in the
southern district, forms much of the rest of the Aber-
deenshire border ; the rivulet Ailnach, for about 5 miles
to within 2| miles of its influx to the Aven, forms the

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