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;!edo and
idrid ta-
by the
, 10S0.
j fignal
ned over
; Moors.
. I2U.
able fliare, and all the reft to the Moors,
wealth and real power, both by land and Tea, the
Moors were much fuperior •, but their continual dif-
fenfions greatly weakened them, and every day facili¬
tated the progrefs of the Ghriitians. Indeed, had either
of the parties been united, the other mufl foon have
yielded j for though the Chriftians did not make war
upon each other conftantly as the Moors did, their mu¬
tual feuds were yet fufficient to have ruined them, had
their adverfaries made the proper ufe of the advantages
thus aftorded them. But among the Moors almoil eve¬
ry city was a kingdom *, and as thefe petty fovereign-
ties fupported one another very indifferently, they fell
a prey one after another to their enemies. In 1080,
the king of Toledo was engaged in a war with the king
of Seville, another Moorilh potentate j which being ob-
ferved by Alphonfo king of Caftile, he alfo invaded his
territories ; and in four years made himfelf mafter of
the city of Toledo, with all the places of importance in
its neighbourhood *, from thenceforth making Toledo
the capital of his dominions. In a ihort time the whole
province of New Caftile fubmitted 5 and Madrid, the
prefent capital of Spain, fell, into the hands of the
Chriftians, being at that time but a fmall place.
The Moors were fo much alarmed at thefe conquefts,
that they not only entered into a general confederacy
againft the Chriftians, but invited to their aftiftance
Mahomet Ben Jofeph the fovereign of Barbary. He
accordingly came, attended by an incredible multitude;
but was utterly defeated by the Chriftians in the defiles
of the Black Mountain, or Sierra Morerra, on the bor¬
ders of Andalufia. This victory happened on the 16th
of July x 21 2, and the anniverfary is flill celebrated at
Toledo. This victory was not improved ; the Chrif-
tian army Immediately difperfed themfelves, while the
Moors of Andalufia were ftrengthened by the remains
of the African army; yet, inftead of being taught, by
their paft misfortunes, to unite among themfelves, their
diffenfions became worfe than ever, and the conquefts of
the Chriftians became daily more rapid. In 1236, Don
Ferdinand of Caftile and Leon took the celebrated city
of Cordova, the reftdenee of the firft Mooriih kings; at,
the fame time that James I. of Aragon difpofftffed
them of the iftand of Majorca, and drove them out of
Valencia. Two years after, Ferdinand made himfelf
mafter of Murcia, and took the city of Seville; and in
1303 Ferdinand IV. reduced Gibraltar.
In the time of Edward III. vve find England, for the
firft time, interfering in the affairs of Spain, on the fol¬
lowing occafion. In the year 1 284 the kingdom of Na¬
varre had been united to that of France by the mar¬
riage of Donna Joanna queen of Navarre with Philip
the Fair of France.. In 1328, however, the kingdoms
were again feparated, though the fovereigns of Navarre
were ftill related to thofe of France. In 1350, Charles,
furnamed the Wicked, afeended the throne of Navarre,
and married the daughter of John king of France.
Notwithftanding this alliance, and that he himfelf was
related to the royal family of France, he fecretly enter¬
ed into a negoeiation with England againft the French
monarch, and even drew into his fchemes the dauphin
Charles, afterwards furnamed the Wife. The young
prince, however, was foon after made fully fenfible of
the danger and folly of the connexions into which he
had entered j and, by way of atonement, promifed to
[ Soi ] SPA
In point of facrifice his affociates. Accordingly he invited the king
of Navarre, and fome of the principal nobility of the
fame party, to a feaft at Rouen, where he betrayed
them to his father. The moft obnoxious were execu-xhe king of
ted, and the king of Navarre was thrown into prifon. Navarre
In this extremity, the party of the king of Navarre hadmiprifoned •
recourfe to England. The prince of Wales, furnamed
the Black Prince, invaded France, defeated King John at France.
PoiXiers, and took him prifoner * ; which unfortunate * See
event produced the moft violent difturbanccs in that France,
kingdom. The dauphin, now about 19 years of age,^ 44-
naturally affumed the royal power during his father’s
captivity : but poffeffed neither experience nor autho¬
rity fufheient to remedy the prevailing evils. In older
to obtain fupplies, he affembled the ilates of the king¬
dom : but that affembly, inftead of fupporting his ad-
miniftration, laid hold of die prefent opportunity to de¬
mand limitations of the prince’s power, the puniihment
of paft malverfations, and the liberty of the king of Na¬
varre. Marcel, provoft of the merchants of Paris, and ,
firft magiftrate of that city, put himfelf at the head of
the unruly populace, and puihed them to commit the
moft criminal outrages againft the royal authority. 'They
detained the dauphin in a kind of captivity, murdered
in his prefence Robert de Clermont and John de Con-
flans, marefchals of France ; threatened all the other
minifters with the like tate ; and when Charles, who
had been obliged to temporize and diffemble, made his,
efcape from their hands, they levied war againft him,
and openly rebelled. The other cities of the kingdom,,
in imitation of the capital, fhook off the dauphin’s au¬
thority, took the government into their own hands, and
fpread the contagion into every province. <53
Amidft thefe diforders, the king of Navarre made his Efcapes,
efeape from prifon, and prefented a dangerous leader
to the furious malecontents. He revived his ptetenftons ,r,a]econ ‘ '
to the crown of France : but in all his operations h&tents.
aXed more like a leader of banditti than one who afpi-.
red to be the head of a regular government, and who-
was engaged by his ftation to endeavour the re-eftablifti-
meiit of order in the community. All the French,
therefore, who wiflied to reftore peace to their country,
turned their eyes towards the dauphin ; who, though
not remarkable for his military talents, daily gained by-
his prudence and vigilance the afeendant over his ene¬
mies. Marcel, the feditious provoft of Paris, was flain,
in attempting to deliver that city to the king of Na¬
varre. . The capital immediately returned to its duty it
the moft confiderable bodies of the mutinous peafants,
were difperfed or put to the fword ; Tome bands of mi¬
litary robbers underwent the fame fate; and France
began once more to aflume the appearance of civil go¬
vernment. 1
John, was fucceeded in the throne of France by his
fon Charles V. a prince educated in the fchool of adver-
fity, and well qualified, by his prudence and experience,
to repair the. Ioffes which the kingdom had fuftained
from the errors of his predeceffors. Contrary to the
praXice of all the great princes of thofe times, who held
nothing in eftimation but military courage, he feems to
have laid it down as a maxim, never to appear at the
head of his armies ; and he was the firft European mo¬
narch that {bowed the advantage of policy and forefight
over a rafti and precipitate valour.
Before Charles could think of counterbalancing fo

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