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it is inconvenient to heat the work red hot,
cafe copper and brafs are foldered with filver.
^ Though fpelter folder be much cheaper than filver-
folder, yet workmen in many cafes prefer the latter.
And Mr Bayle informs us, that he has found it to run
with fo moderate a heat, as not much to endanger the
melting of the delicate parts of the work to be foldered j
and if well made, this filver folder will lie even upon the
ordinary kind itfelf; and fo fill up thofe little cavities
that may chance to be left in the firfl: operation, which
is not eafily done without a folder more eafily fufible
than the firlt made ufe of. As to iron, it is fufficient
that it be heated to a white heat, and the two extremities,
in this Hate, be hammered together 5 by which means
they become incorporated one with the other.
SOLDERING, the joining and faftening together of
two pieces of the lame metal, or of two different metals,
by the fufion and application of fome metallic compofi-
tion on the extremities of the metals to be joined.
To folder upon filver, brafs, or iron : Take filver, five
pennyweights; brals, four pennyweights : melt them to¬
gether for foft folder, which runs fooneft. Take filver,
five pennyweights ; copper, three pennyweights : melt
them together for hard folder. Beat the folder thin,
and lay it on the place to be foldered, which muft be
firft fitted and bound together with wire as occafion re¬
quires ; then take borax in powder, and temper it like
pap, and lay it upon the folder, letting it dry ; then
cover it with live coals, and blow, and it will run im¬
mediately j take it prefently out of the fire, and it is
done. It is to be obferved, that if any thing is to be
foldered in two places, which cannot well be done at one
time, you muft firft folder with the harder folder, and
then with the foft; for if it be firft done with the foft,
it will unfolder again before the other is faftened. Let
it be obferved, that if you would not have your folder
run about the piece that is to be foldered, you muft rub
fuch places over with chalk.—In the foldering either of
gold, filver, copper, or either of the metals above men¬
tioned, there is generally ufed borax in powder, and
fometimes rofin. As to iron, it is fufficient that it be
heated red hot, and the two extremities thus hammered
together, by which means they will become incorporated
with each other. For the finer kinds of iron and rteel
inftruments, however, gold proves an excellent folder.
This metal will diffolve twice or thrice its weight of
iron in a degree of heat very far lefs than that in which
iron itfelf melts ; hence if a fmall plate of gold is wTarp-
ped round the parts to be joined, and afterwards melted
by a blow-pipe, it ftrongly unites the pieces together
without any injury to the inftrument, howmver delicate.
SOLDIER, a military man lifted to ferve a prince
or ftate in confideration of a certain daily pay.
SoLDiER-Crab. See Cancer, Entomology Index.
Frejh-Water Soldier. See Stratiotes, Botany
SOLE, in the manege, fort of a horn under a horfe’s
foot, which is much more tender than the other horn that
encompaffes the foot, and by reafon of its hardnefs is
properly called the horn or hoof.
Sole. See Pleuronectes, Ichthyology Index.
SOLEA. See Sandal and Shoe.
. SOLECISM, in Grammar, a falfe manner of fpeak-
mg, contrary to tire rules of grammar, either in refpedl
of declenfion, conjugation, or fyntax.-—The word is
Vox. XIX. Part II.
r 4^5 i sol
, m which Greek, roXeixitrfto;, derived from the So/t\ a people of Solecifm
Attica, who being tranfplanted to Cilicia, loft the pu¬
rity of their ancient tongue, and became ridiculous Sowing.
to the Athenians for the improprieties into which they
SOLEMN, fomething performed with much pomp,
ceremony, and expence. Thus we fay, folemn feafts,
folemn funerals, folemn games, &c.—In law, folemn
fignifies fomething authentic, or what is clothed in all
its formalities.
SOLEN, Razor-sheath, or Knife-handle Shell; a
genus belonging to the clafs of vermes, and order of
tefacea See CONCHOLOGY Index.
SOLEURE, a canton of Swifferland, the nth in
rank in the Helvetic confederacy, into which it was ad¬
mitted in the year 1481. It ft retches partly through
the plain, and partly along the chains of the Jura, about
35 fquare, and containing 50,000 inhabitants.
The foil for the moft part is exceedingly fertile in corn ;
and the diftri&s within the Jura abound in excellent
paftures. The trade of the town and canton is of little
value, although they are commodioufly fituated for com¬
merce. It is divided into 11 bailiwicks, the inhabi¬
tants of which are all Roman Catholics except thofe of
the bailiwick of Buckegberg, who profefs the reformed
religion. The fovereign power refides in the great
council, which, comprifing the fenate or little council
of 36, confifts of 102 members, cholen by the fenate
in equal proportions from the 11 tribes or companies in¬
to which the ancient burghers are diftributed.
A melancholy cataftrophe took place in this canton
on the 13th July 1813. The river Birfe, fwelled by
the rains, overflowed its banks at Dornach, and under¬
mined a houfe, which was thrown down and buried a
number of perfons in its ruins. An ancient tower,
which was occupied as the prifon, experienced a fimilar
fate,, fell on the bridge, broke it in the centre, and
precipitated a great crowd of perfons colle&ed upon it
into the torrent. By this accident 150 of the inhabi¬
tants loft their lives,
Soleure, an ancient and extremely neat town of
Swifferland, capital of the canton of the fame name. It
contains about 4000 inhabitants, and is pleafantly feat-
ed on the Aar, which here expands into a noble river.
Among the moft remarkable objeds of curiofity in this
town is the new church of St Urs, which was begun
in 1762 and finiffied in 17727 a noble edifice of a
whitilh grey ftone or coarfe marble, which admits a
polifti. This building coft at leaft 8o,oool. a confider-
able fum for fuch a fmall republic, whofe revenue fcarce-
ly exceeds 12,oool. a-year. Soleure is furrounded by-
regular ftone fortifications, and is 20 miles north-north-
eaft of Bern, 27 fouth-fouth-weft of Bafle, and 45 weft
of Zurich. E. Long. 7. 20. N. Lat. 47. 15.
SOLFAING, in Mufc, the naming or pronouncing
the feveral notes of a fong by the fyllables ut, re, ml, fa,
fol, &c. in learning to fing it.
Of the feven notes in the French fcale ut, re, mi, fa,
fol, la,f, only four are ufed among us in fin gin o’, aI
vn, fa, fol, la: their office is principally, in finging
that by applying them to every note of the fcale, it may
not only be pronounced with more eafe, but chiefly
that by them the tones and femitones of the natural
fcale may be better marked out and diftinguiflied. This
defign is obtained by the four fyllables fa.foj, la, mi.
3 N Thui

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