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lex, from 20 to 30 of argill, and from 4 to 20 of lime.
The celebrated Bergman found rich foils in the valleys
of Sweden, where the annual quantity of rain is 24
inches, to contain, for each 100 parts, 56 of filiceous
fand, 14 of argill, and 30 of lime. In the climate of
Paris, where the average fall of rain is 20 inches, fertile
mixtures, according to M. Tillet, vary from 46 to 52
per cent, of filex, and from 11 to'17 of argill, with 37
of lime. Hence it appears that in dry countries rich
earths are of a clofer texture, and contain more of the
calcareous ingredient, with lefs of the filiceous. Ivlr
Arthur Young has difeovered, that the value of fertile
lands is nearly proportioned to the quantities of gas
which equal weights of their foil afford by diflillation.
See Agriculture Index.
SOISSONS, an ancient, large, and confiderable city
of France, in the department of Ailne and late province
of Soiffonnois. It was the capital of a kingdom of the
fame name, under the firft race of the French monarchs.
It contains about 12,000 inhabitants, and is a bifhop’s
fee. The environs are charming, but the ftreets are
narrow, and the houfes ill-built. Fhe fine cathedral has
one of the moft confiderable chapters in the kingdom j
and the bifhop, when the archbifliop of Rheims was ab-
fent, had a right to crown the king. The caftle, though
ancient, is not that in which the kings of the firft race
refided. Soiffons is feated in a very pleafant and fertile
valley, on the river Aifne, 30 miles weft by north of
Rheims, and 60 north-eaft of Paris. E. Long. 3. 24.
N. Lat. 49. 23.
SOKEMANS. See Soc and Socage.
SOL, in Mujic, the fifth note of the gamut, ut, re,
la. See Gamut.
Sol, or Sou, a French coin made up of copper mixed
with a little filver, and is worth upwards of an Englifh
halfpenny, or the 23d part of an Englifti fhilling. I he
fol when firft ftruck -was equal in value to 1 2 deniers
Tournois, whence it was alfo called dou-zain, a name it
flill retains, though its ancient value be changed j the
fol having been fince augmented by three deniers, and
ftruck with a puncheon of a fleur-de-lis, to make it cur¬
rent for 15 deniers. Soon after the old fols were coined
over again, and both old and new were indifferently
made current for 15 deniers. In 1709, the value of
the fame fols was raifed to 18 deniers. 1 owards the
latter end of the reign of Louis XIV. the fol of 18 de¬
niers was again lowered to 15 ; and by the late king it
was reduced to the original value of 12. What it is at
prefent pofterity may perhaps difeover.
The Dutch have alio two kinds of fols : the one of
filver, called fols de gros, and like wife fchelling; the
other of copper, called alfo fuyver.
Sol, the Sun, in Astronomy, Astrology, &c. See
Astronomy, pafjim.
Sol, in Chemiftry, is gold j thus called from an opi¬
nion that this metal is in a particular manner under the
influence of the fun.
Sol, in Heraldry, denotes Or, the golden colour in
the arms of fovereign princes.
SOL ALUS, or Soleus, in Anatomy, one of the ex-
tenfor muffles of the foot, rifing from the upper and
hinder parts of the tibia and fibula.
. SOLAN-goose. See Pelicanus, Ornithology
SOLANDRA, a genus of plants belonging to the
clals of monadelphia, and to the order of polyandria •,
and in the natural fyftem arranged under the 38th or¬
der, Tncoccece. See Botany Index.
SOLANUM, a genus of the monogynia order, be¬
longing to the pentandria clafs ol piants} and in the na¬
tural method ranking under the 28th order, Lwidce.
See Botany Index.
SOLAR, fomething belonging to the Sun.
SOLAR-Spots. See Astronomy Index.
SOLDAN. See Sultan.
SOLDANELLA, a genus of plants belonging to
the clafs of pentandria, and order ot monogynia j and
in the natural fyftem arranged under the 21ft order,
Precice. See Botany Index.
SOLDER, SoDDER, or Soder, a metallic or mineral
compufition ufed in foldering or joining together other
metals. .
Solders are made of gold, filver, copper, tin, biimuth,
and lead ; ufually obferving, that in the compofition
there be fome oi the metal that is to be foldered mixed
with fome higher and finer metals. Goldimiths ulually
make four kinds of folder, viz. folder ot eight, where
to feven parts of filver there is one of brafs or copper ;
folder of fix, where only a fixth part is copper folder
of four,' and folder of three. It is the mixture of cop¬
per in the folder that makes raiffd plate come always
cheaper than flat.
As mixtures of gold with a little copper aie found
to melt with lefs heat than pure gold itfelf, thefe mix¬
tures ferve as folders for gold : two pieces of fine gold
are foldered by gold that has a fmall admixture of cop¬
per ; and gold alloyed with copper is foldered by fuch
as is alloyed with more copper : the workmen add a
little filver as well as copper, and vary the proportions
of the two to one another, fo as to make the colour of
the folder correfpond as nearly as may be to that of the
piece. A mixture of gold and copper is alfo a folder
for fine copper as well as for fine gold. Gold being
particularly difpofed to unite with iron, proves an ex¬
cellent folder for the finer kinds of iron and fteel inftiu-
The folder ufed by plumbers is made of two pounds
of lead to one of block-tin. Its goodnefs is tried by
melting it, and pouring the bignefs of a crown-piece on
a table ; for, if good, there will arife little bright ftuning
ftars therein. The folder for copper is made like that
of the plumbers ; only with copper and tin ; and lor
very nice works, inftead of tin, they fometimes ule a
quantity of filver. Solder for tin is made of two-thirds
of tin and one of lead, or of equal parts of each -,_but
where the work is any thing delicate, as in organ-pipes,
where the junaure is fcarce difcernible, it is made ot
one part of bifmuth and three parts of pewter. Hie
pewterers ufe a kind of folder made with two parts ot
tin and one of bifmuth ; this compofition melts with the
leaft heat of any of the folders.
Silver folder is that which is made of two parts ot
filver and one of brafs, and ufed in foldering thole me¬
tals. Spelter folder is made of one part of brafs and
two of fpelter or zinc, and is ufed by the braziers and
copperfmiths for foldering brafs, copper, and iron. His
folder is improved by adding to each ounce of it one
pennyweight of filver 5 but as it does not meit wiftiout
a confiderable degree of heat, it cannot be ufed ivhen

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