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Societies for certain tlie laws of refiftance of water to folids of differ-
Encoura- ent forms> in all varieties of circumftance. On this
Fromot’iitr head the reward is not lefs than one hundred pounds
ArtsMa- or a gold medal. Other premiums of 50, 30, and 20
"nufadtures, guineas, according‘to the importance or difficulty of the
particular fubjeft or point of inveftigation, are likewife
’ offered, for different difcoveries, inventions, or improve¬
ments. The terms of admiffion into the fociety are a
fubfcription of two guineas annually, or twenty guineas
for life.
r Society of Artifts of Great Britain, which confifts
of dire6fors and fellows, was incorporated by charter in
1765, and empowered to purchafe and hold lands,^ not
exceeding 1000I. a-year. The dire&ors of this fociety,
annually ele&ed, are to confift of 24 perfons, including
the prefident, vice-prefident, treafurer, and fecretary 5
and it is required that they be either painters, fculptors,
architects, or engravers by profeffion. _
6. Britifh Society for Extending the Fijheries and Im-
proving the Sea-Coafs of this Kingdom, was inflituted in
1786. The end and defrgn of this fociety will belt
appear from their charter, of which we prefect an ab-
ftraCt. ■ .
The preamble dates, “ the great want of improve¬
ment in fifheries, agriculture, and manufactures, in the
Highlands and Iflands of North Britain -, the prevalence
of emigration from the -want of employment in thole
partsy the profpeCt of a new nurfery of feamen, by the
eftablifhment of fifhing towns and villages in that quar¬
ter. The aft therefore declares, that the perfons there¬
in named, and every other perfon or perfons who fhall
thereafter become proprietors of the joint flock men¬
tioned therein, fhall be a diftinCl: and feparate body po¬
litic and corporate, by the name of The Britif!} Society
for Extending the Fijheries and Improving the Sea-coajls
of this Kingdom: That thefaid fociety may raife a ca¬
pital joint flock not exceeding 150,000!. to be applied
to purchafing or otherwife acquiring lands and tenements
in perpetuitv, for the building thereon, and.on no other
land whatever, free towns, villages, and fifhing flations.
That the joint flock fhall be divided into {hares of 50I.
each: That no one perfon fhall in his or her name pof-
fefs more than ten fhares, or 5®^- • f hat the fociety
fhall not borrow any fum or fums of money whatsoever:
-That the fums to be advanced for this undertaking, and
the profits arifing therefrom, fhall be divided proportion¬
ally to the fum fubfcribed; and that no perfon fhall be
liable for a larger fum than he or fire fhall have refpec-
tivOly fubfcribed : 11 hat one or two fhares fhall entitle
to one vote, and no more, in perfon or by proxy, at all
meetings of proprietors } three or four fhares to two
votes ; five, fix, or feven fhares, to three votes 5 eight
or nine fhares to four votes} and ten fhares to five votes
and no more: That more perfons than one inclining to
hold in their joint names one or more fhares fhall be in-
titled to vote, by one of fuch perfons, according to the
priority of their names, or by proxy : 1 hat bodies cor¬
porate fhall vote by proxy under their feal : That all
perfons holding proxies fhall be proprietors, and that no
one perfon fhall hold more than five votes by proxy :
That the affairs of the fociety fhall be managed b'y a
governor, deputy governor, and 13 other direClors, to
be eleCled annually on the 25th of March, from among
the proprietors of the fociety, holding at leafl one full
fhare, by figned lifts of their names to be tranimittid by
56 ] s o c
the proprietors to the fecretary of the fociety : That five Societiest
proprietors, not being governor, direCtor, or other offi-
oer, fhall be in like manner annually elefted to audit
the accounts of the fociety : 1 hat there fhall be one ge- A.rts> M.
neral meeting of the proprietors annually on the 25th of nufaduf:
March: That occafional general meetings fhaU be call- |
ed on the requefl of nine or more proprietors : That the gjl
general meetings of the proprietors fhall make all bye- v—^
laws and conflitutions for the government of the fociety,
and for the good and orderly carrying on of the bufinefs
of the fame : That no transfer {hall be made of the flock
of the fociety for three years from the 10th of Auguft
1786 : That the cafh of the fociety fhall be lodged in
the bank of England, bank of Scotland, or the royal
bank of Scotland: That no diredor, proprietor, agent,
or officer of the fociety, fhall retain any fum or fums of
money in his hands beyond the fpace of 30 days on any _
account whatfoever: That all payments by the fociety
fhall be made by drafts on the faid banks, under the
hands of the governor or deputy-governor, counterfign-
ed by the fecretary or his deputy, and two or more di-
redlors : And that the books in which the accounts of
the fociety fhall be kept fhall be open to all the pro¬
prietors.” .
The inflitution of this public-fpirited fociety was m
a great meafure owdng to the exertions of the patriotic
John Knox} who in the courfe of 23 years traverfed
and explored the Highlands of Scotland not fewer than
16 times, and expended feveral thoufand pounds of his
own fortune in purfuing his patriotic defigns.
7. Britifh Wool Society. See Britifh Wool Society.
SOCIETY Jles, a duller of ifles, fo named by Captain
Cook in 1769. They are fituated between the latitudes
of 16. 10. and 16. 55. fouth, and between the longi¬
tudes of 150. 57. and 152. weft. They are eight in
number namely, Otaheite, Huaheine, Ulietea, Otaha,
Bolabola, Maurua, Toobouai, and Tabooyamanoo or
Saunders’s ifland. The foil, produdions, people, their
language, religion, cuftoms, and manners, are fo nearly
the fame as at Otaheite, that little need be added here
on that fubjedl. Nature has been equally bountiful in
uncultivated plenty, and the inhabitants are as luxurious
and as indolent. A plantain branch is the emblem of
peace, and exchanging names the greateft token of
friendfhip. Their dances are more elegant, their dra¬
matic entertainments have fomething of plot and con-
fiftency, and they exhibit temporary occurrences as the
objedls of praife or fatirej fo that the origin of ancient
-comedy may be already difcerned among them. I he
people of Huaheine are in general ftouter and fairer than
thofe of Otaheite, and this ifland is remarkable for its
populoufnefs and fertility. Thofe of Ulietea, on the
contrary, are fmaller and blacker, and much lefs orderly.
Captain Cook put on ffiore a Cape ewe at Bolabo a,
where a ram had been left by the Spaniards; and alio
an Englifh boar and fow, with two goats, at Ulietea.
If the valuable animals which have been tranfported
thither from Europe fhould be fuffered to multiply, no
part of the World will equal thefe iflands in variety and
abundance of refrefhments for future navigators.
SOCINIANS, in church hiftory, a fed of Chriltian
heretics, fo called from their founder Fauftus Socmus
(fee Socikus). They maintain^ “ That Jefus Chnlt
was a mere man, who had no exifteree beAre !ie was
conceived by the Virgin Mary } that the Holy GhofUs

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