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DUNDEE is a seaport, royal burgh and parish, and since 1892 it
has been a city; it; is second in point of commercial position and
third in population in Scotland; the city lies' on the north bank
of the Firth of Tay, about 9 miles from the mouth of the Firth,
and the parish, which is about 5 miles east to west and 1 north to
eouth. is bounded on the south by the Tay, on the north by the
united parishes of Mains and Strathmartine, on the east by Mur-
roes and Monifieth, and on the west by the united parish of Lift",
Benvie and Invergowrie. a large portion of which is incorporated
with the burgh. The city is 43 miles north from Edinburgh, 66
south-south-west from Aberdeen, 29 south-west from Montrose,
20 east-by-north from Perth, 17 south-west from Arbroath and 14
south from Forfar. The Caledonian and North British railways
have each stations in the city. The Caledonian railway system
connects Dundee with Perth, Stirling and the west of Scotland
generally, and London and the south by the West Coast lines. One
branch runs 1 northward to Newtyle, Blairgowrie and Alyth, and
another branch goes direct to Forfar, the county town. The Cale-
donian are joint owners with the North British Company of the
Dundee and Arbroath railway, which connects Dundee with Ar-
broath, Montrose, Aberdeen and the whole north-east of Scotland.
The North British has running powers for a certain distance over
the east and west lines, and has a joint right in part of both the
terminal stations — one at the east? and the other at the west end
of Dock street; the company has also constructed the Arbroath
and Montrose direct line, which increases the facilities for com-
munication between Dundee and the south-eastern portion of For-
farshire and the south-western portion of Kincardine shire. Along-
side trie west station at the end of Dock street is the North British
or Tay Bridge station. In 1870 the North British Bailway Com-
pany obtained an Act of Parliament for bridging the Tay at
Dundee. This bridge was designed by Sir Thomas Bouch, the
company's engineer, the plans being for a single line of rails only.
On the 31st May, 1878, the bridge was 10,612 feet in length,
and consisted of 85 spans, some of these being over 00 feet
above high water level, and the cost was said to be £360,000;
but on the evening of the 28th December, 1879, during the preva-
lence of a gale of unusual force, while the mail train from Edin-
burgh was passing over it, the whole of the " high girdera,"
extending over 13 spans, were blown into the river, together
with the train, leaving a gap of 3,000 feet, and upwards of 70
persons perished; the present bridge, from plans by William
Henry Barlow C.E., F.R.S. was approved by Parliament in
May, 1881, and the structure, starting from the south side of
the Firth of Tay, near St. Fort, comprises 84 spans, varying in
breadth from 50 to 245 feet ; the first four above high water
mark are continued by 23 of varying size, which take the line
to the south side of the navigable channel, where they connect
with the 13 great spans crossing the mid channel; of these,
the southern ones vary in height above high water from 63 to
65 feet; the four main spans have a height of 77 feet clear, and
those on the south 58 to 75 feet; 36 spans continue the bridge
from the north side of the mid channel to Dundee shore, and
seven land spans carry it into Dundee : the trains run on the
lower part of the great spans, and on the upper portion of the
others; the whole length is about 2 miles, and it has a double
set of rails on a steel floor; the foundations are on iron caissons;
the contractors were Messrs. Arrol and Company, of Glasgow,
and the bridge was opened for general traffic in June, 1887.
The situation of Dundee is very beautiful, the river here form-
ing a bay 2 miles broad, from the margin of which the town
spreads over a gradual acclivity, ascending towards the base of
a lofty and sheltering eminence called " Dundee Law." The
picturesque coast of Fifeshire forms the southern border of the
Tay, and a steam ferry-boat affords frequent communication be-
tween the opposite shores of the estuary. The greater part of
the mansions of the opulent are ranged on the lofty bank of the
Tay, westward of the town, which commands a view of the
river and the beautiful scenery on the opposite coast, including
Newport and Wormit, places which may be considered as resi-
dential suburbs of Dundee.
History. — Dundee is a place of considerable antiquity. From a
fishing hamlet it came to be a walled town, with a castle of con-
siderable strength. During the usurpation of Edward I. the town
was made the station of an English garrison ; and in the course of
the struggle for the Scottish crown between that prince and
Bobert Bruce, Dundee was twice taken and retaken. The patriot
Wallace, whose deeds have enkindled the enthusiasm of bard
and historian, received his education at the Grammar School of
Dundee. The castle of Dundee becoming so formidable an an-
noyance when in possession of an enemy, an occurrence but too
frequent, Bruce deemed it expedient to demolish it, and not a
vestige of it now remains. Its site was near the present Castle
street: — that street having been formed by blasting a portion of
the rock on which it stood. The town was destroyed in the
reign of Richard II., and again in that of Edward VI., but on
each occasion it speedily recovered, and resumed its rank among
the principal Scottish towns, being several times pledged as
security for ransoms, and for the fulfi'.ment of treaties. It was
also a place of royal residence, there being a palace (known as
Whitehall) to the south of the Nethergate, and a mint at the foot
of the Overgate, the site of which is still indicated by the name
of " Mint Close," given to an entry in that quarter. Robert III.
was the first sovereign who struck coin at the mint. Dudhope
Castle, originally the seat of the Scrymgeour family, standard
bearers to the Scottish kings, stands on the face of the rising
ground to the- north of the town, and was at one time the property
of Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee: in recent times ifi
was used as a military barracks, but the castle and grands now
form a part of the Barrack Park. In Dundee the reformed re-
ligion found some of its earliest and warmest defenders. Sc-
zealous was the town in its cause, as to be honoured with th©
appellation of " the second Geneva." In 1544 George Wishart,
who suffered martyrdom at St. Andrews, preached here, and on-
one occasion narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of one
of Cardinal Beaton's emissaries: in memory of his escape the-
East Port or Cowgate, where he preached, and the only portion,
of the old walls extant, is still kept Btanding. In April, 1645,
the Duke of Montrose took Dundee by assault. The last calamity
of this kind that befell the town was its capture and plumder &
few years later by General Monk, an event which is the
subject of many local traditions. A few eminent men
have conferred honour on Dundee, from its being
the place either of their birth, education or labour: — Hector
Boece, the historian; Sir William Wallace; John Blair; Goldman
and Ferguson, the poets ; Sir George Mackenzie, the scholar and
lawyer; and in more recent days, Drs. Small, Willi son, Davidson
and Russell; Nicoll, the poet; George Gilfillan, the critic and'
preacher ; Dr. Thomas Dick, the astronomer and christian philo-
sopher ; and the naval victor. Admiral Duncan. The author ot
the " Song of the Shirt," Thomas Hood, also resided in the town.
for a short time, and some of his first efforts at versifying ap-
peared in the columns of the "Dundee Advertiser."
Municipal. — Dundee was created a royal burgh by William*
the Lion in return for the attention paid to his brother, the Earl
of Huntingdon, who, in returning from the Crusades, was ship-
wrecked near this port. The oldest charter now extant is one-
granted by Robert Bruce, confirming these burghal privileges.
It was made a city by a royal charter granted in 1892, and in
1894 was created a county, the lord provost being lord lieutenant
of the same. The municipal government of Dundee Is exercised'
by a lord provost, six bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, a
hospital master, a kirk master, and a council, including the
magistrates of 28 members. There are 13 trade guilds, viz. : the-
Masons, Wrights and Slaters (known as the Three United Trades),
the Bakers, Shoe Makers, Glovers, Tailors, Bonnet Makers, Flesh-
ers, Hammermen, Weavers, Dyers and theMaltmen incorporation-
Six courts are held within the town — the Burgh of Bailie Court,
the Sheriff's Court, the Commissary Court, the Guild Court, the-
Police Court and the Justice of Peace Small Debt Court. The-
city is divided into nine districts and wards. Dundee sends two*
representatives to Parliament. The larger portion of the city is
lighted with gas from works the property of the burgh and under
the control of the corporation, but in March, 1892, the central
portion of the city was supplied with electric lamps from new-
works, erected by the Corporation, in Dudhope crescent, at a.
cost for buildings" and fittings of £30,000. The corporation also
own the waterworks, drawing their supplies from Loch Lin-
trathen and the river Tay, and in 1899 they acquired the tram-
way system. Town Town House, now called the Council Cham-
bers, in the High street, was completed in 1734, from designs- ,
by Adam, and comprises a Guild Hall, Court Boom, Record.
Chamber and other offices; the front has a piazza, and from)
the centre of the building rises a spire 140 feet high; a large-
addition was made to the building in 1S73, with the view of
including in it all the public offices.
Commerce and Manufactures. — Dundee is a place of great com-
mercial activity, and is the principal seat of the linen and jute 1
industries; the rapid increase, both of the productions and ship-
ping, is the most striking feature of its recent history. When-
Monk captured the place in 1651, 60 vessels were found in the har-
bour, so richly laden as to afford a booty to the captors exceeding'
in value the whole of their spoils " in the wars throughout the
three nations; " the plunder, however, did not enrich the captors,.
for the ships sunk in passing the bar. For several years subse-
quently few vessels floated in the deserted harbour; but in 1669
37 vessels arrived in the port; in 1673, 49; in 1680, 85; by
1731 the number had considerably decreased, and the trade
continued to dwindle till this once flourishing port was chiefly
the resort of fishermen and smugglers. But the situation of
Dundee, the commodiousness of its harbour, and the enterprise of
its inhabitants, caused the tide of commerce to turn, and the
town, from 1792, has continued to progress. In 1745 the port dues
scarcely amounted to £1.200; but in 1792 the number of vessels
belonging to the town had increased to 116, of 8,550 tons; and'
about the same period the foreign clearances outwards and in-
wards were nearly 12,000 tons, while the coasting trade was about
60,000. Since 1815 the increase has been enormous, and the total
revenue from all sources from that date, until May, 1903,
amounted in the aggregate to £3,081,076 2s. 3d. During the year
ending May, 1903, the revenue amounted to £74,915 19s. 4d. ;
in the year ending May, 1861, it was only £25,329. In conse-
quence 'of the augmentation of its shipping, new sea walls and"
quays were built, the tidal harbour was extended, wet dock3 and
graving docks constructed, and there are now but few ports in-
Great Britain affording greater facilities and accommodation?
for shipping. In 1S15 the management of the harbour was
placed in the hands of commissioners, appointed annually under

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