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BERWICKSHIRE
Occupies the south-east angle of Scotland, lying along the river
Tweed, which on the south divides it from Roxburghshire, and on
the south-east from Northumberland; in shape it is somewhat of
-a pentagon, the other three sides being its east coast, which runs
due north from the town of Berwick -on-T weed to Eyemouth,
where it turns to the west for a few miles, afterwards continuing
its course north to 'St. Abb's Head, from which point it runs
north-west to Cockburnspath, where it joins Haddingtonshire,
which county bounds its fourth or north side, the fifth, the west,
being bounded by Edinburghshire and Selkirkshire. The coast
has no prominent harbours or sea lochs or any large bays ; the
county measures 34 miles from east to west and 23 from north to
sout-h, and comprises 292,577 acres of land and 1,322 of water.
It had a population of 32,406 in 1891, and in 1901, 14,725 males
and 16,099 females; total, 30,824. The inhabited houses in 1901
was 6,775, uninhabited 592, and building 22. In point of size
Berwick ranks as the nineteenth Scottish county, and in popu-
lation as the twenty-fourth.
Early History. — At the period of the Eoman invasion Berwick-
shire was inhabited by tribes of British called " Otadinii; ' and
it was subsequently overrun by bands of Saxons, who engrafted
their language and manners on those of the original inhabitants.
The conquests by these foreigners extended a considerable way
along the shores to the east and west ; and in the course of time
they gave the land of which they thus possessed themselves the
title of Lothian, which it still retains in the western division. The
entire area of Berwickshire was comprised in this Saxon territory,
â– which was distinguished by the name of " Saxonia," superseding
its previous designation " Bernicio." Until the year 1020 this
district of country was included within the kingdom of Northum-
berland; in that year it was ceded to King Malcolm II. by Cos-
patriek, Earl of Northumberland, who settled in Scotland and was
created Earl of Dunbar. About the beginning of the eleventh
century, many Norman and Anglo-Saxon families settled in Ber-
wickshire, as well as other parts of Scotland. It is recorded as
a fact that at Berwick-on-Tweed originated those laws which were
framed and applied in Scotland for the regulation of burghs and
their guild associations. Lying on the main route from England,
Berwickshire suffered in the succeeding centuries in all the wars
between the two hostile nations, and was occasionally involved in
jurisdictional disputes with its ecclesiastical neighbour, the Pala-
tine Bishop of Durham, and Berwick and the bridges across the
Tweed were in general the main objects of contention. From the
variety of successes and disasters which Berwickshire underwent
for so many centuries, and from its successive occupation by
different mixed nations, the people of this part of North Britain
have not that distinct Scottish character so directly recognised in
places more distant from the frontier. By their language and per-
sonal appearance, especially the former, the inhabitants of Ber-
wick and its neighbourhood are easily particularised, and, in
common with the Northumbrians, they speak with that remark-
able " burr " which is found nowhere else in the kingdom. The
" Men of Merse " distinguished themselves at Flodden and other
bloody fields, under the command of Lord Home ; and there is a
tradition that a party, led to the Holy Land by some of their
feudal chiefs, obtained on its ensanguined plains the highest
honours for their unconquerable intrepidity. When Charles I. paid
hie first visit to Scotland, in the year 1633, Lord Home met him at
Berwick with a train of 600 Merse gentlemen " gallantly arrayed"
on horseback.
Surface, Soil &c. — Berwickshire is divided into three districts,
namely Merse, Lammermoor (or Lammermuir), and Lauderdale.
The Merse, so called from the word " march," or boundary, is
â– the largest and most valuable district, occasionally giving name
-to the whole county, and embracing that tract of low land between
â– the Lammermoor hills on the north and the river Tweed on the
â– south, having Lauderdale for its western boundary. It is the most
compact and extensive piece of level ground in Scotland, com-
prising 130,000 statute acres; in appearance it resembles a wide-
spread portion of some of the English fertile counties, and is well
enclosed and furnished with trees and plantations. Lammermoor,
which consists of nearly 90,000 statute acres, is a highly pastoral
district, with generally a wild, brown aspect, and runs on the
northern border of the Merse, so as to divide the vales of Edin-
burgh and Haddington shires from the valley of the Tweed. The
district of Lauderdale, which has received this title from the
Leader water, along whose bank it ranges, is a mixture of hi.l
and dale, the land^in the valleys being essentially arable; this
portion of the county contains about 67,000 statute acres.
The mountains lie mostly in the north-west of the county;
none of them reach 2,000 feet above sea level, the highest
being Crib Law, 1,670 feet; Blvthe Edge, 1,521; Collie Law,
1,2S6 ; Riddel Law, 1,270 and Dun Law, 1,292.
Produce, Minerals, Manufactures &c. — Within the last century
very great exertions have been made to improve the agricultural
character of the county, and in this respect it differs nothing
from the neighbouring territory of East Lothian. The chief
crops in 1902, according to the "Agricultural Returns for Great
Britain," were : — Oats, 33,337 acres; barley or bere, 19,7li8 ;
wheat, 2,220 ; total of corn crops, 56,467 acres ; turnips and
swedes, 26,393 acres; potatoes, 2,198; cabbage &c. 482; vetches
or tares, 589; total of green crops, 30,227 acres; hay, li.oJo
acres; permanent -pasture, 43,537; clover, sainfoin and. grasses
(for hay), 10,192 acres; not for hay, 49,701 acres; mountain
and heath land used for grazing, 70,073 acres ; woods and plan-
tations (1895), 15,378. The live stock in 1902 was: — Horses used
solely for agriculture and brood mares, 4,333 ; unbroken horses,
787; cows and heifers in milk or in calf, 2,878; other cattle,
13,988; ewes kept for breeding, 114,008; other sheep, 203,246;
sows kept for breeding, 615; other pigs, 2,652. The exports of
Berwickshire consist of corn, sheep and eggs; and these, indeed,
may be considered as the extent of its commerce. The only
minerals raised in 1901 from quarries were igneous rocks, 3,556
tons, and sandstone, 4,451 tons. The county is strictly pastoral
and agricultural. Manufactures as yet have made little or no
progress within its borders; what is connected with this system
of industry finds its chief seat at the town of Berwick, on the
borders. Paper is made at Chirnside Bridge, and the manu-
facture of woollens is carried on at Earlston and Cumledge. The
herring fishery, which is pursued at Eyemouth and other ports,
is a profitable industry, as is also the curing of this fish.
Rivers and Railways. — The rivers mostly flow from north-west
to south; the Leader, Eden, Langton and the Black and White
Adder all flow into the Tweed, while the Eye debouches into the
North Sea at Eyemouth. The Tweed is a large river, but it is
not capable of navigation ; it is, however, of great value from its
salmon fisheries, which are under a strict system of water police.
The Eden, which runs southwards from Lammermoor, has a
remarkable fall, near the house of Newton Don, of about forty
feet, exhibiting a fine appearance when there is a flood. It is a
peculiarity of the Blackadder that no salmon can live in it ; if
any happen to enter they are said to die in a few days, though
they are caught plentifully in the Whiteadder, which also abounds
with trout &c. The North British railway has the control of the
lines in the county, entering it from the town of Berwick-on-
Tweed, and passing north to Bummouth (from which place is
a line to Eyemouth), where it turns westward and north-west to
Reston, whence there is a branch line running south-west
through Edrom, Langton and Greenlaw to Earlston, and thence
to St. Boswells ; the main line continuing on through Cockburns-
path to Dunbar and Edinburgh; the southern and south-eastern
portion of the county is supplied by the North Western railway,
on the English side of the border, running via Norham, Cold-
stream and Kelso.
Divisions and Representation. — Berwickshire comprehends (ex-
clusive of Berwick town) thirty-two parishes and thirty-four
ecclesiastical parishes, forming the Presbyteries of Duns, Chirn-
side and Earlston, in the synod of Merse and Teviotdale. and
contains one royal burgh, Lauder, which until under the Redistri-
bution of 'Seats Act, 1885, joined with Haddington, Dunbar,
North Berwick and Jedburgh in returning one member to Parlia-
ment, but was then merged in the county, which is represented
by one member in Parliament. The parliamentary constituency
for 1903 was 5,421.
MEMBER OP PARLIAMENT FOR THE COUNTY.
Harold John Tennant esq. B.A. 33 Bruton street, London W
DEPUTY-LIEUTENANTS FOR BERWICKSHIRE.
LORD-LIEUTENANT.
Lord Binning, Mellerstein house, Kelso
Vice-Lieutenant, Earl of Haddington, Tyninghame house, Pres-
tonkirk
Askew-Robertson Watson esq. Ladykirk
Balfour Charles Barrington esq. Newton Don, Kelso
Hall Sir Basil Francis bart. Dunglass, Cockburnspath
Home Earl of, The H'irsel, Coldstream
Home Capt. David Milne-, Wedderburn & Caldra house, Duns
Home Hon. James Archibald, 66 Curzon street, London W
Hope Colonel Charles, Cowdenknowes
Houstoun-Boswall Sir George Lauderdale bart. Blackadder,
Edrom
Lauderdale Earl of, Thirlstane, Lauder
Macbraire James esq. Broadmeadows
Maitland Viscount, 14 Lower Sloane street, London S W
Miller Sir James Percy hart. Manderston, Duns
Money Brig. -General Gordon Lorn Campbell C.B., D.S.O. Allan-
bank, Lauder
Reav Lord G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. Carolside, Earlston
Scott Hon. Walter George Hepburne (master of Polwarth)
Sinclair Lord, Nisbet, Duns
Sinclair The Master of Nisbet
Swinton John Liulf Campbell esq. Kimmerghame
Trotter Ma.jor-Gen. Sir Henry K.C.V.O. Charter hall, Duns
Tweeddale Marquess of, Tester, Haddington
Tweedmouth Lord P.C. Hutton castle, Berwick
Clerk of Lieutenancy, George Rankin esq. Lauder

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