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T3ATUGATE is a market town, an independent burgh of barony,
and a pariah; situated on the middle road betwixt Edinburgh
and Glasgow, 18 miles w. from the former, 24 e. from the latter, and
seven s. from Linlithgow. It is a station on the Batbgato branch of
the Edinburgh and Glasgow and Monklands sections of the North
British Railway. Another line is completed to Airdrie, Bo'ness, &c,
joining the North British line at Mauuel. The town occupies a
Peasant site, near the southern base of a great ridge of hills, extend-
ing across tho county, and sheltering the town on the north and
oast; while it has a fine southern exposure, and is seen at a con-
s deraljle distance from that direction and from the west. These
hi Is abound with limestone quarries, in which are found lino speci-
mens of fossil remains. Visitors from America, &c. who a few years
ago were geologising in the district, procured some rare- specimens.
Bathgate lays claim to high antiquity. Malcolm IV. granted to the
monks of Holyrood tho church at Batlikel, with tho land belonging
to it. At oue period tho town and its adjoining lands formed part
of the ample possessions of King Robert Bruce, which, in 1306, he
gave as a dowry to his daughter Majory, on her marriage "With
Walt or, the Great Stewart,]and tins marriage introduced tho Stewart
family to tho throne of Scotland. The town, which is lighted with
gas by a joint-stock company, and abundantly supplied with water
of an excellent quality by a new water works, costing .£6,000,
consists of a new and an old part, the former being well built. Few
places of its size can show so much bustle and tidiness, and the
town is considered to be very healthy. Bathgate was made a burgh
of barony by Charles II. in 1661, and was created a free and indepen-
dent burgh of barony by Act of Parliament in 1824, and placed under
the control of a provost, three bailies, twelve councillors, a treasurer,
n town clerk, and a procurator fiscal. It has now adopted Provost
Lindsay's Police Act of 1862, and is governed by twelve -commission-
ers. The sheriff holds small debt courts here once a quarter.
Young's Paraffin Light & Mineral Oil Company. Limited, and the West
Lothian Oil Compauy, Limited, have each extensive works in the
vicinity of the town, and an iron Foundry, two spade ami shovel works
and a glass works are in the town, and a large distillery near to it.
At Westtield, about two and a half miles distant, is the extensive
mill of Messrs. James Stewart and Co. paper manufacturers, afford-
ing occupation for a large number of hands. The weaving of goods
for the Glasgow manufacturers, which at one time employed many
hands, is now only carried on to a very limited extent. On the
north border of the parish, the silver mine workings were a few
years ago re-opened. These were once greatly esteemed, and the
precious metal smelted not far from tho spot before .being coined.
James VI. took a great interest in the concern, although history
tells U3, not much to his profit. Mr. Henry Aitken (of tho firm of
Messrs. Russell and Sou), the renowned coal master, obtained a
lease of the mines from the Earl of Hopetoun, the proprietor, but
after earnest research found them to be unprofitable.
The places of worship are a church of the Establishment, a Free,
an United Presbyterian and Evangelical Union churches, and also a
Roman Catholic chapel, all of which have a manse or residence for
the minister. The old parish church, which was erected about
1787, having got into a bad state of repair, and been for some time
inadequate for the accommodation of the increased number of in-
habitants, was taken down in 18s2, and a new building erected on
the same site. It was built conjointly by assessment of the
heritors of the parish, and by voluntary subscriptions, and cost up-
wards of £8,000. The new church, which was opened in 1884, is a
handsome edifice of stone, with hall and vestry adjoining, and for
the greater part in the Norman style of architecture, a massive
grandeur being given to the whole erection by a square tower, which
rises from the south-west corner to a height of 103 feet, terminat-
ing incrocketted pinnacles at the corners. The tower carries a clock
and bell, the munificent gifts of John Waddell, Esq., of Inch, and ex-
provost of the burgh of Bathgate, the estimated cost of which was
over £250. The clock, which is placed at an elevation of 90 feet, has
its dial illuminated by gas, and is seen from a great distance in all
directions. The interior of the church has a pleasing and comfort-
able appearance. The whole of the internal wood work, with the
exception of the pulpit, is of pitch pine. There is a gallery, which
is carried continuously round three sides of the church, and the
east gable is relieved by a circular apse, in which have been placed
three memorial stained glass windows, very fine in design and
colour, giving tone and richness to the light, and much enhancing'
the general effect of the interior. The total accommodation is about J
POST OFFICE, Hopetoun Street, Bathgate, Elizabeth S- Jardine, P«st Mistress.— Letters arrive from all parts (via Edinburgh) at
9 10 a.m., 1 aud 5 15 p.m., and are despatched to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and all parts at 7 45 a.m. ; to Glasgow, London, Ireland, Sc, at
10 40 a.m. ; to Edinburgh and the East at 12 20 noon ; to Edinburgh, Glasgow, English, Irish, and Foreign at 4 20 p.m. ; to London, and
South (via Coatbridge), at 7 5 p.m., and to Edinburgh and all parts at 7 40 p.m. Money Order and Telegraph Office and Savings Bank.
Post Office, Armadale, James Beveridge, Post Master. — Letters arrive from all parts at 8 45 a.m., and 5 45 p.m., and are despatched
to Glasgow and the West at 8 10 a.m. ; to Edinburgh and all parts at 11 50 a.m. ; to Bathgate at 3 p.m. ; and to Edinburgh, Glasgow and
all parts at 7 15 p.m. Money Order and Telegraph Office and Savings Bank.
*** Letters for Armadalo should be addressed " Armadale, Linlithgowshire."
Post Office, Blackbridge, Isabella Storrie, Post Mistress.— Letters arrive from all parts (from Armadalo Station) at 11 45 a.m., and
are despatched thereto at 1 45 p.m.
Post Office, Armadale Station, James Lauder, P.)st Master.— Letters arrive from all parts (via Edinburgh aud Glasgow) at 8 46
a.m. and 5 p.m. and are despatched to Glasgow aud the West at 8 45 a.m. ; to Edinburgh and all parts at 12 So noon ; to Bathgate at 3 40
p.m., to Edinburgh and all parts at 7 50 p.m.
Post Office, Torphichen, James Roberts, Post Mast er.— Letters arrive from all parts (from Bathgate; at 10 30 a.m. and 6 80 p.m. and
are despatched at 7 a.m. and 3 5 p.m. The nearest Money Order Office is at Bathgate,
1.100 sittings. The burgh boasts of a superior educational institu-
tion in the Bathgate Academy, endowed by tho late John Newland,
of Kingston, Jamaica, a native of this town ; the sum bequeathed by
this gentleman amounted, previous to tho erection of this building,
to between .£16, O0J and ,£17,000. The Academy stands on a com-
manding and healthy site iu tho immediate vicinity of tho town,
and is an elegant and extensive structure ; it comprises seveu large
class-rooms, library-room, trustees' room and janitor's house. Tho
courses of education are conducted on tho most approved systems
by a rector and a number of teachers. It is now under Government
inspection, and is managed by trustees, one of whom represents the
lord of the manor, and another is appointed by the Commissioners.
The youth of tho parish have thus tho benefit of first-rate instruc-
tion in all the useful and many of the more learned branches, while
others, not parishioners, are admitted at the discretion of tho
trustees. Tho Bathgate Board School, which is situated near tho
Academy, has a handsome appearance, and is numerously attended.
There are three hank branches, viz: th« National, tho Royal and
the Union Bank, and a Savings Bank. Tho principal commercial
and posting establishments are Stewart's and Simpson's Hotels,
where commercial men and others will find ample accommodation.
The market day is Tuesday, when a large supply of grain of all kinds
is brought from the surrounding country. The buyers aud sellers
are accommodated in a splendid building erected in Jarvey street,
called the Corn Exchange. The building also contains spacious
rooms for courts and for other public meetings. The following
eminent men were born in the parish : Dr. John Fleming, professor
of natural science, Aberdeen ; Dr. John Reid. professor of anatomy,
St. Andrews ; and the celebrated Sir James Simpson, Bart., whose
reputation is European. The authorities of the burgh are entitled
to hold (by Act of Parliament), seveu annual fairs— namely, on the
third Wednesdays in April, July and August, on tho first Wednes-
days after Whit-Sunday and Martinmas (o.s.), and the fourth Wed-
nesdays in June and October; the Whitsuntido and Martinmas
fairs are the principal, and are well attended by cattle dealers. The
parish of Bathgate embraces an area of 10,876 acres, and in 1881
contained a population of 9,450, of which the town possessed 4,887.
Armadale is a village in the parish of and two miles west from
Bathgate, on the main road from Edinburgh to Glasgow. It is in a
flourishing state, being situated amongst large fields of irou stone,
gas coal, common coal, &c, and is well supplied with gas by a public
company. It is a police burgh, with nine commissioners. The
village takes its name from an estate long the property of Sir
William Honeyman, a senator of the College of Justice, under the
title of Lord Armadale. Tho places of worship in the village are a
quoad sacra Established church, a Free church, an Episcopal
chuich, and a W^sleyan Methodist chapel. A railway passing near
to the village oQers facilities for mineral traffic ; and Armadale is a
station on the Western sectiou of the North British Railway.
Several thriving hamlets surround the village. The mining villages
of Dorhamtown, Polkemmet and Bathville are also situated in
the parish. Population of Arniariale in 1881, 2,642.
Torphichen is a parish and village, the latter on the road from
Bathgate to Linlithgow, 2>£ miles n. by w. from Bathgate, and 4%
s.w. by s. from Linlithgow. It is a place of great antiquity, and
was once of importance ; but it has now an entirely rural character,
and presents a straggling, yet pleasant, appearance. Adjacent to the
village, on the north-east, are some remains of the hospital or
preceptory of Torphichen, the principal Scottish resi lence of the
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem ; of the church of the preceptory,
the chancel and the nave are entirely gone, aud only the choir aud
tho transept remain. The nave is traditionally reported to have
been of great length; but its site is now occupied by an edifice
of a very different character, the plain modern parish church.
There is also a Free church, said to bo one of tho first Free
churches in Scotland. In the village is an excellent Board school,
conducted by efficient teachers. The parish, although in some
parts rather moorish, is generally fertile ; coal and ironstone are
found within it, and there arc brick and tile works and a paper mill
within its bounds. Acreage of the parish, 9,939. Population in
1881, 1,526.
Blackbreqge is a small hamlet in the parish of Torphichen, about
five miles and a half from Bathgate to the west, on the Edinburgh
and Glasgow road, seated iu an agricultural district. A Free church
is situated in the village, aud a school near to it.

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