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OR Angus. — This county is bounded on the east by the German Ocean, on the west by Perthshire, on the north by the counties of
Aberdeen and Kincardine, the latter lying also on its north-eastern verge ; on the south, the Frith of Tay is its boundary, as likewise
is Perthshire for a short distance; its extent from north to south is about thirty-eight miles, and from east lowest thirty-six. The
figure of this county is, perhaps, the most uniform of any in Scotland; and bnt for an indentation on its western side, caused by the in-
trusion of a part of Perthshire, it would describe almost a perfect square. The contents of its area have been variously estimated ; it is
stated to contain 890 square miles or 669,840 statute acres ; of these there are about three hundred thousand cultivated, and two hundred
and sixty thousand uncultivated; the portion occupied by lakes is inconsiderable. In size Forfarshire is classed as the twelfth, and in
population as the fifth of the Scottish counties.
Early History. — The district of Angus (now Forfarshire), with the contiguous county of Kincardine on the north, anciently formed
the country of the Horesti, and a portion of the Pictish kingdom. On the dissolution of that goverment by Kenneth II., about the end of
the ninth century, he is said to have divided it between his two brothers, Angus and Mearns, from whom the two counties derived their
appellation. The district gave the title of Earl to two different families ; on the extinction of the first, the earldom was conferred on a
relation of King David Bruce, and in 1477 it merged in the family of the Douglases ; it has since devolved on the Du'*e of Hamilton. ^Thero
are a number of old ruinous castles in this county, most of which have fallen to decay, in consequence of the baronies on which they
stand having passed into the hands of the proprietors of other estates.
Soil, Surface and Produce. — The great level valley of Strathmore runs through the centre of the county from east to west, and
the lines of hills which flank this extensive and fine tract of country, with the Grampians on the north, and some minor ranges on the
south, may be said to form this district into a series of continuous ridges, generally pursuing a direction from west to east, interrupted
occasionally by the different rivers and streams coursing to the sea. The eminences of greatest altitude in the shire are — Hill of Dun-
dee, 525 ; Dunnichen Hill, 720; Belmont, 759 ; Sidlaw, 1.406;; Craigowl, 1,609 ; Oathlaw, one of the Grampians, 2,264; and Mouut-Battock,
8,465 feet above the level of the sea. The portion of the Grampian mountains in this shire is diversified by many beautiful valleys, and
irom the summit of these elevations to the ocean on the east, and the Tay on the south, the surface of the land may be considered an
inclined plain. From the atrial region of the highest Grampian an extensive and well varied prospect is presented, not only of almoBt
the whole country adjoining the Tay, and of the ocean, but of the eastern part of the peninsula of Fife, the coast of East Lothian, and the
heights of Lammermoor. The capabilities of Forfarshire for agriculture continued for centuries in that dormant state which character-
ised most parts of Scotland, but it cannot escape observation, at the present day, that this district is completely emancipated from the
reproach of inattention to husbandry ; it now exhibits a lively spirit and practically enlightened system of farming, and consequently a
just appreciation of the advantages of this most useful of all sciences. Within the last eighty years the farmers of this county have
kept at least equal pnee, in the improvements adopted, with those of similar situated divisions of thfi country ; and the wealth of For-
farshire has been steadily increasing both from its agriculture and its manufacturing products. The general drainage of the land has
been proceeded in to a great and beneficial extent ; and several lochs, particularly that of Rescobie, have been drawn off for the purpose
of obtaining shell-marl, which has long been in high repute with the agriculturists in their respective neighbourhoods ; the introduction
of bone manure has been followed by the most beneficial results. The sowing of permanent pasturo grasses and turnips is persevered
in to a broad and lucrative amount; and the quantity of ground appropriated to tillage is annually augmenting. Wheat and beans are
also_ grown, but only in the more favoured localities. The Improvement of live stock has been in proportionate advance with that of
cultivation, and has been materially facilitated by the zealous co-operation of the various agricultural societies. The polled black ADgus
cattle, now less common than at one time, have given place to other breeds, and many young and lean cattle are imported from Ireland.
Numbers of black-faced sheep are reared on the hills. In traversing the lower parts of the shire, beautiful enclosures and plantations
meet the eye in every parish ; and by the formation of excellent roads in all directions a pleasing inducement is now held for travelling
through this progressively prosperous county. The planting of waste lauds seems io have made very little progress till about the middle
of the last century, and when, at length, this sure source of future profit suggested itself, Scotch firs were the only sort of trees planted
in such situations. More recent planters introduced the larch as a more valuable species of timber, and adapted, as they thought, to
wvery variety of soil and situation, but experience has exploded this latter notion, for it has been profitably proved that by the operation
of draining, the moors and waste lands produce excellent oak and beech, of which a number of proprietors have planted extensively.
From the mouth of the Tay to near the Westhaven the coast is sandy, having, from thence eastward, many sunken rocks. Within a mile
to the east of Abroath the shore becomes bold and rocky, presenting dreadful precipices to the sea, perforated with caverns by the in-
cessant and insidious workings of the waves ; the " Redhead," a promontory upwards of two hundred feet in perpendicular heignt, is the
most striking feature of this rocky front ; it forms the south point of Luuan Bay, and exposes a beautiful beach to the ocean for nearly
three miles. _ The fisheries of Forfarshire are of great importance, those of the North and South Esk, and the coast of the county, are at
the present time very valuable, and the mode of packing salmon in ice, for the London market, is a practice which has proved of peculiar
advantage to those connected with that branch of the fishery. Haddock, cod, ling, soles, halibut, turbot, &c, are also caught, and during
July and August the fishermen are engaged in fishing for herring, of which large numbers arc taken on the north-east coast.
Manufactures and Miherals. — The manufactures of Forfar are of very high consequence ; and as Fifeshiro is celebrated for tho
production of the finer linen fabric, so is this county noted for the manufacture of the coarse hempen goods, wrought up from foreign
materials ; the spinning of yarn in large mills is carried on to a prodigious extent. Dundee, Arbroath, and Montrose are its principal
trading ports ; the two first-named enjoy pre-eminence in the making of sailcloths, Osnahurgs, sacking, dowlases, and other linen
textures; Brechin participates largely with other places in the preparation of flax; and the towns of Forfar, Montrose and Kirriemuir
are seats of material manufacturing importance. Exclusive of these particular stations, the inhabitants of all the little towns and
villages are industriously employed in weaving the already prepared materials into cloth, aud in the process of bleaching. Besides the
branches above mentioned there are also many engineering works, breweries, tanneries, paper works, distilleries and starch and tobacco
manufactories. This county is not distinguished for its mineral treasures. Of limestone, which is f.mnd in various parts, there are
immense tracts in the Grampians ; but from the expense of conveying coal to buru i*, this natural product, so valuable under other cir-
cumstances, is wrought but to a limited extent, and principally in the neighbourhood of Montrose. Freestone is plentiful in almost
every parish; the colour is various, but in no instance so white and beautiful as the stone of Fife or Mid-Lothiau. The Arbroath paving
stone is t well known, and has a ready sale in London and Eainburgh. Lead has been found in Beveral places, and was at one time wrought
to a limited extent in the parish of Lochlee. But, unfortunately for its local interests this county is destitute of coal — at least no vestige
of this invaluable fossil has yet been discovered ; the whole district, therefore, is dependent on the Fife and Newcastle collieries for this
essential article of domestic comfort and manufacturing facility. Borings for this fuel have at different times been made, but without
Rivers, Lochs, and Railways.— The principal rivers are the North and South Esk, which rise near each other on the northern
confines of the county; the former originates in Loch Lee, which is filled by the water of the Lee, after being joined by the Unich,
which latter forms several beautiful cascades. The tributaries of the North Esk are the Luther, the Cruick, the West Water, the Tarf,
and the Mark ; enriched with these streams it falls into the sea three miles from Montrose. The South Esk passes through the centre
of the county, receiving in its progress the contributary waters of tho Noran, the Lemno, the Carity, and the Prosen, and enters the
ocean at Montrose. The third river in point of size iB the Isla, which rises near the source of the Esks; it receives, near Meigle, the
Dean, the Carleet a little above Glamis, and the romantic bum of Glamis near the castle; and, turning westward into Perthshire.it
joins the Tay at Kinclaven. There are also two lesser rivers, the Dighty and the Lunan. The former Droceeds from some small lakes
in the parish of Lundie, and falls into the mouth of the Tay, east from Broughty Ferry ; the latter conveys the waters of the lakes of
Rescobie and Balgavies to the sea at Lunan Bay. The Lunan is famous for its eels, and the other rivers abound with different varieties
of the trout and salmon. In the enumeration of rivers yielding wealth to this county, the Tay must not be omitted — though this
district cannot claim its origin— being far the most valuable from its adaptation to the purposes of commerce. It has its source in tho
western extremity of Perthshire, and, after winding through delightful scenery, the beauties of which are heightened by its sparkling
waters, it becomes an estuary or firth, and about eight miles below Dundee it expands into the bay of St. Andrews, and loses its dis-
tinction in the wide reservoir of the German Ocean. The lakes of most consequence are Loch Lee, in the parish of its name; Loch
Brandy, in the parish of Clova; the Loch of Forfar, near that town ; the Lochs of Rescobie of Lundie and Lintrathen, in the respective
parishes so denominated; and of Balgavies, in the parish of Aberlemno. None of these are of great magnitude— indeed few, if any, are
more than a mile in extent, and there is nothing peculiar in their qualities or situations. Forfarshire is included in an extensive line of
Railway communication, and it may be said that every town of note iu this shire is visited by a main line or branch from it.
Divisions, Representation, &c— Forfarshire comprises fifty two complete parishes and four parts of parishes, in which are five
royal and parliamentary burghs, namely Dundee, Arbroath, Montrose, Brechin, and Forfar; the four last named burghs, with Bervio
(in Kircardineshire), unite in sending one member to the Senate. The town of Dundee also returns two, and the county one; the
gentleman sitting for the latter being James W. Barclay, Esq. The parliamentary constituency in 1884-85 was 3,747. The lord lieu-
tenant is the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Bv the returns presented to Government in 1871 the county contained 106,324 males
and 1S1,243 females ; total, 237,567. In 1881 the numbers were : males, 120,091 ; females. 146,269: total, 266,360, showing an increase in
he ten years of 28,793 persons.

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