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ANCIENTLY designated Lennox, and subsequently Drai-bartonshire (which latter, though noi the most popular, is the proper
appellation), is a small county in the west of Scotlaud, and considered as within the boundary of the Highlands. On the west
it is separated from Argyleshire by Loch Long, Perthshire touchos its northern extremity, the county of Stirling bounds it on the east
and also on the north, Lanarkshire on the south-east, and the Clyde separates it from the county of Renfrew on the south. The
figure of this county is rather singular ; it describes almost a perfect crescent or semicircle, protruding on the south and south-west,
its cmcavity being filled through its whole extent on the north and north-east by the county of Stirling. The distance between its
eastern and northern extremities is nearly forty miles, while the breadth of the shire is from five to thirteen, and in one part it is
only two miles broad ; the parishes of Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch, however, are not included in this measurement, being detaohed
from the main portion on the south-east, and lying between the counties of Lanark and Stirling. This severed portion of the county is
twelve miles long by from two to four and a half miles broad, and was annexed to the district in the reign of Robert I. The entire
shire embraces an area of 270 square miles, or 172,677 acres. In point of size this county stands as the twenty-seventh, and in
population as the fourteenth.
Name and Early History. — In ancient times the name of the shire was Levanach, signifying "the country of Leven," which
was corrupted in the courso of years to Levcnax, and more latterly to Lennox. Originally this district was the residence of a British
tribe designated the Attacotti? or EUkacacti, a word importing " dwellers along the extremity of the wood." The descendants of this
people were not enslaved or expelled from their hunting grounds by the Romans; they became known as the Britions of Strath-Clyde,
and, though almost perpetually at variance with their neighbours, they remained a distinct race till the reign of Malcolm IT. From
these people the name of Dumbartonshire is Baid to be derived, and taken from the appellation of tho castle, signifying " the hill of
the Britons." This region, until the early part of the last century, continued to be the ready prey of certain lawless Highland clans,
who lurked in the recesses of its interior, and were finally extirpated or reduced to quiescence and subordination only by the most
vigorous measures that could be adopted by the civil government of the country. It was at one period the property of a powerful
family of Saxon origin, one of whom, called Alwyn, the son of Arkil, was elevated to be Earl of Lennox, in the reign of William the
Lion, and his descendants for several centuries were at once heritable sheriffs of the county and chief possessors of its lands. The
Earldom of Lennox was raised to a Dukedom in 1581 ; but Charles, the sixth Duke, dying without issue in 1672, the honours of the
family, including the Earldom of Darnley, devolved upon Charles It., as nearest male heir, who bestowed them on his natural sou,
Charles Lennox, after whose demise the estates were sold.
Produce, Manufactures, &c— In recent times great improvements have been effected in this county, and every year its prolificacy
and value are increasing in amount. The soil and climate having been found favourable to the growth of timber, the district now
â– wears a warmer and more cheerful aspect than formerly, while the income accruing from produce has been in a corresponding degree
augmented. The cattle of the shire are chiefly of the West Highland breed, some of which are reared in the county ; the dairy has
become an object of attention and profit on most farms. The roads throughout have been greatly extended and improved within the
last sixty years, a measure highly conducive to the agricultural and manufacturing interests. A century has elapsed since tho manu-
facturing dawn broke upon this part of Scotland— bleachlields, about that period, made their appearance on the banks of Loch
Lomond and the Leven. About 1768 the first printworks were established on the Leven, but now calico printing and Turkey-red
dyeing are very extensively pursued at several places. Ship building, both iron and wood, is a branch of some importance, as is also
the manufacture of chemicals. Until 1831 the glass works of this county were in high repute, Dumbarton being their chief seat, but
they have now ceased to exist. Dumbartonshire does not contain numerous mineral treasures within its bosom, but it has an abun-
dance of freestone and slate, and some coal and ironstone, the two latter, though wrought, yielding but a Bmall return. The soil is
various consisting in the north and west of mountain and moor, and south and east of Loch Lomond, of deep black loam, clay, gravel
and bog and peat. The climate generally is good, along the vale of the Leven and the Clyde it is mild, but on the Kilpatrick Braes
and among the mountains of Arrochar and Luss the cold is rather severe, and stormy weather is experienced.
Mountains Lakes, Railways, &c— These are the most remarkable objects in the county. Of the former the chief are those of
Arrochar Luss' Row and Roseneath, which are inaccessible to the plough, and abound with moors, mosses and woods ; the hill of
Kilpatrick on the south are of much less height, Ben Voirlich, adjoining Perthshire, haying the greatest altitude, rising 3,300 feet
above the 'level of the sea. The other principal elevations are Ben Vane, 3,004 feet ; Ben Eich, 2,302 feet ; Ben Breach, 2,233 feet ; Ben
Reoch 2168 feet- and Tullich, 2,075 feet. The precipitous and rugged summits of these mountains, constituting the Highland
district, are frequently capped with snow, and in the finest weather hid amidst the clouds ; some of these eminences are apparently
volcanic particularly the rock on which Dumbarton Castle stands. There are about ten lakes or lochs, among these are Loch Long
and Loch Gare, projecting into the Highland territory from the Firth of Clyde ; but the most extensive, and perhaps, the most beauti-
ful lake in Scotland is that of Loch Lomond ; it lies at the foot of the Grampian mountains, which terminate here, but seem to rise in
many islands that appear a continuation of them, or like fragments torn off by some violent convulsion of nature. These islands,
thirtv-two in number, are lofty and picturesque ; on Inch Cailoch (or the island of Nuns) are tho remains of a conventual church, and
on Inch Murrins (or the island of St. Murrinus, two miles long, and converted into a deer park) are the ruins of a house once belonging
to the Lennox family. This magnificent expanse of water is thirty miles long, in some places eight broad, and cov t rs a surface of
20 000 acres- the depth varies from twenty to one hundred fathoms. It abounds with delicious trout, and the southern part has
salmon- the' purity of the stream and the richness of its banks soothe the mind of the traveller, while the bleachfields, printworks
and cotton-mills, the villages, hamlets and gentlemen's seats scattered over an apparently remote district, must impress him with an
exalted idea of the industry and wealth of the inhabitants. The lake discharges its waters into the Clyde by the river Leven, which
is the only stream of any note in the district. The Forth and Clyde Canal, about 35 miles in length, extends from Grangemouth on
the Forth to Bowling on the Clyde. The North British Railway traverses the western division of the county, and the Edinburgh and
Glasgow (North British) the eastern division, through which also runs a branch of the Caledonian line.
Division Representation, &c— Dumbartonshire is divided into twelve parishes, ten of which form'tbe presbytery of Dumbarton,
it contains but one royal burgh-Dnmbarton-and four burghs of barony. The only contributory burgh, or that which in conjunction
with others is represented in the Senate, belonging to the county is Dumbarton ; it unites with Renfrew, Rutherglen, Kilmarnock and
Port Glasgow in returning one member to the Imperial Parliament. The present member for the county is Archibald Orr Ewing,
Esq. The parliamentary constituency for 1884-5, was S.268. The lord-lieutenant of the county is H. Ewing Crum Ewing, Esq. of
Ballikinrain, Stirlingshire. According to the census returns for 1871 tho population of the shire was 58,857, and by those for
1881, 75,333.

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