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but of inferior dimensions, erected moro rccontly, to the memory
of M'Gavin, the formidable opponent of Popery, and author of
'The Protestant." The statue of Knox is 250 feet above the level
of tho Clyde, and is a conspicuous object at a great distance ; the
artist was Mr. Forrest, of Lanark, and the likeness was taken from
an original painting in the Glasgow University. The surrounding
ground d have been tastefully planted and formed into a cemetery,
named the Necropolis, and the stranger will be bighlv gratified by
a visit to this interesting spot. The view from the summit of the
hill is pleasiug and commanding, access to it being obtained by a
handsome bridge.
A monument of Lord Nelson, on Glasgow Green, is a simple
obelisk, 143 feet iu height, surrounded by a protecting railing ; the
four sides of the pedestal record the birth, achievements, and death
of this naval hero ; and the fact of this being tho first memorial
Bculptuved to his memory, impresses a high idea of the public
spirit of the citizens. The Green, of which it is so conspicuous an
ornament, iB Glasgow's pride. This delightful promenade covers
an extent of 140 acres. The Clyde washes its southern margin; the
prospect towards tho south-east is beautiful and extensive— woods
and villas in the foreground, and the hill of Dychmont, with the
loftier aud more distant one of Tinto, in the distance. Here, dur-
ing the summer months, may be witnessed the games of cricket
and football, and then, too, the Green is animated by military
evolutions. 1 Besides the Green, three other large and beautifully
laid out parks have been .acquired through the wise liberality of
the Corporation. The Kelvingrove or West End Park comprises 50
acres of ground on both sides of the Kelvin. Sir Joseph Paxton
furnished the design for its ornamentation. It formed a portion of
the old estates of Woodside and Kelvingrove. The old Manor is
Btili preserved j hut has undergone many alterations, improvements
and additious, to lit it for serving as the Museum, whi^h contains
many interesting objects in nature, art and science, and well re-
pays a careful inspection. One speciality is the Fulton Orrery, a
wonderful piece of mechanism, representing the movements of the
heavenly budit-s. Outside the museum is an old engine, said to be
one of tho first made by James Watt, tho inventor of the steam
engine. TThe chaste and beautifully modelled fountain in the park
was erected in 1S72 to commemorate tho introduction of Loch Kat-
rine water into Glasgow, tmd the services in connection therewith
of the late Lord Provost, Robert Stewart, Esq., of Mirdostoun. The
fountain is 40 feet high, and is surmounted by a fine bronze figure
. representative of the Lady of the Lake. Close by is a group of
bronze statuary, presented to his native city by John S. Kennedy,
Esq., of New York. It is modelled from sketches taken in the Jardin
des Plantes, Paris. The Queen's Park, situated to the south of the
city, has a total extent of 117 acres, and was also laid out by Sir
Joseph Paxton. From the flag-staff mound a beautiful prospect
Btretches out all around except on one side where the clump of
trees interpose, and which mark tho spot where camped tho Regent
Murray at the memorable battle of Laugside, 13th May, 1568. The
pleasure ground to the east of the park was the scene of the battle,
and close to is Qneen Mary's Cottage on the main road. A stone
in the wall tells the tale. The Alexandra, or North Eastern Park,
lies in the north-eastern vicinity of Donnistoun. It was formed in
1870-73, is 85 acres in extent, and was acquired and laid out at a
cost of £40,000. Glasgow can now boast of having a parkin each of
tho four quarters of tho city.
No stranger can perambulate Glasgow without noticing its admir-
able pavement. The material being granite, of almost indestruc-
tiblo hardness, Glasgow may be deemed one of tho best paved cities
in Europe. The whole extent of the thoroughfares within the city,
apart from mere lanes, alleys, &c, is about 120 miles. A sum of
£33,000 is expended annually upon paving these streets and keeping
them in repair. The city is plentifully supplied with good and cheap
gas by tho Corporation, which has the most extensive works to be
found anywhere. The same body also supplies to the city and
adjoinin g burghs water of remarkable excellence. It is derived from
Loch Katrine, a Highland lake, thirty-four miles distant. The
great work by which this is accomplished was begun in 1856, under
the superintendence of Mr. Bateman, c.e. and completed three
years afterwards. It was a formidable undertaking, the engineering
difficulties being very considerable. The aqueduct from the lake to
a service reservoir, constructed eight miles out of town, is twenty-
six miles long. For the half of that distance the water is conveyed
through tunnels. Four miles consist of iron piping carried across
valleys, while for the rest there are opeu cuttings and bridges. The
cost of the aqueduct averaged £18,000 per mile. The total cost of
the work rather exceeded one million and a half ; but this immense
outlay has been well bestowed. It has placed Glasgow, in relation
to tier water supply, alike as regards quantity, quality, and price, far
ahead of all the large towns in the kingdom. The present supply is
about 33,500,000 gallons daily, whilst provision has been made for a
supply up to 50,000,000 gallons daily, an amount more than double
that which could be obtained thirty years ago, and one that might be
doubled again did necessity arise, its purity has been attested by
frequent chemical analyses to be very remarkable. But no adequate
idea would be obtained of the enterprise of the municipality of
Glasgow if notice were not taken of the City Improvement Trust.
This Trust was created in 1866, having forits object thepurchase of
buildings (especially old buildings), taking them down, opening up
new streets in densely and ill-built localities, and in great part re-
constructing the older portions of the city. A tax was imposed to
enable the trustees to carry out their operations. They have ac-
quired property to the extent of nearly £2,000.000. The work of
re-construction having long been going on, is nearly now complete,
marking Glasgow one of the finest cities in the Empire. The public
slaughter-houses are in Scott street, M ilton street, and Moore street,
Gallowgate. The last named is very much the largest in Scotland—
perhaps in the kingdom. It is situated adjoining the cattle market;
it may be said that the two are one and the same.
Fishing was the earliest branch of productive industry established in
GlaBgow. Cured salmon was exported in large quantities to France,
and different French productions were taken in exchange. In 1667 a
whale fishing company was formed, and a soap manufactory was estab-
lished. The commercial prosperity of this city may be dated from its
embarkation iu the Virginian, tobacco trade.
â–  The commerce of Glasgow was at first carried on in vessels
chartered from English ports ; although it is on record that this
city was in possession of shipping prior to the year 1546, and in the
reign of Charles II., the "Leon" privateer was equipped hero for
a cruise against the Dutch. It was not until the year 1718, how-
ever, that a ship built on the Clyde, the property of Glasgow citizens,
crossed the Atlantic. At that time a good supply of tobacco was
brought to this market, and the merchants were enabled to dispose
of that article upon more advantageous terms than those of London
and other commercial towns in England, which produced great
animosity between those parties. The English tobacco merchants
charged those of Glasgow with frauds on the revenue. An inquiry
was eventually made before Parliament, when a number of restric-
tions were imposed on the trade, which caused it to decline in
Glasgow till the year 1735 ; it then began to revive, and at length
attained such a degree of prosperity that, for several years previous
to the American revolutionary war, the annual imports of tobacco into
the Clyde were from 35,000 to 45,000 hogsheads ; hi the year immedi-
ately preceding that disastrous war, 57,143 hogsheads were imported ;
from 1,200 to 1,300 hogsheads only of the annual imports were sold
for home consumption ; indeed this trade, at that period, engrossed
nearly tho whole available capital and commercial enterprise of Glas-.
gow. The following figures as to the state of this trade for some
years back will be read with interest. In 1867 duty was paid in the
ports of the Clyde on 2,249,3071bs ; in 1868, on 2,409,D501bs ; in 1869,
on 2,459,3331bs ; in 1870, on 2,489,9551bs ; in 1871, on 2,741,4241bs ; in
1872, on 2,692,4561bs ; in 1873, on 2,768,3311bs ; in 1*74, on 2,S31,8191bs ;
in 1875, on 2,750.6461bs ; in 1876, on 3,066,8261bs ; in 1877, on
3,322,6981bs ; in 1878, on 3,116,1211bs ; in 1879, on 3,029,1901bs ; and in
1880, on 3,000,0001bs.
The customs revenue collected in Glasgow also give an idea of its
enterprise. Pn 1868 they amounted to £1,352,246; 1869, £1,185,753;
1870, £963,534 ; 1871, £999,572 ; 1873, £1,056,301 ; 1874, £972,792 ; 1875,
£960,854; 1876, £1,022,825; 1879, £967,383; and for the year ending
31st March, 1881, £971,916. The rental of the City of Glasgow, in-
cluding that portion of tho ancient royalty outside the parliamentary
burgh, as prepared by the assessor under tho Lands Valuation Act,
was in 1855-6f £1,362,168; in 1865-6, £1,808,430 ; in 1876-7, £3,096,847 ;
in 1877-8, £3,295,888; in 1878-9, £3,395,652 ; in 1879-80, £3,406,008; in
1880-1, £3,400,517 ; and in 1884 it amounted to £3,432,114.
The merchants and manufacturers of Glasgow, compelled to turn
their attention to otfier objects when their favourite intercourse with
America was interrupted by the war in 1775, began more generally to
speculate upon the establishment of manufactures. The introduction
of the muslin trade was the result, and it was prosecuted by men of
capital with the greatest spirit and success. Early in the present
century, the high price paid for the embroidery of muslins enabled
thousands of young women in Ayrshire to earn a comfortable living
by what is still termed " Ayrshire needle work." Later, this industry
was extended to the North of Ireland, and Belfast competitors became
rivals for their employment. Still Glasgow remains the chief seat
and mart of the manufacture. It was computed that in 1857 tho
sales of this production had a value of a million and a half. In
that year one of the largest firms in the trade failed for a larger
sum than had ever been involved in any trade bankruptcy in Glas-
gow. The trade thus received a check, from which it has not yet
recovered. But its progress has been upwards, in the direction of
renewed prosperity.
From the introduction of power-loom weaving in 1773, or more
correctly, from the application of steam power to cotton spinning in
1792, the cotton trade and manufactures in Glasgow largely helped to
increase its wealth, and advanced it to greatness. Almost all varieties
of textile manufactures are here carried on, more or less.
The iron trade has long been one of the staple trades of Glasgow. The
city has in relation to it very great advantages from its close proximity
to the iron fields. In its immediate vicinity there were in the year 1884
93 iron furnaces in blast. The Glasgow Exchange is the scene of sale
for this vast manufacture, and the Clyde ports are principally those of
shipment. We give the amount of production and shipment for the 24
years ending in 1884 : —
make— tons. Stock at December 31.
1861 1,035,000 535,000
1864 1,160,000
1865 1,161,000
1866 994,000
1867 1,031,000
1868 1,068,000
1869 1,115,000
1870 1,206,000
1871 1,160,000
1872 1,090,000
1.080000 645,000
l.l.-iujlOO 756,000
1873 993,000
1874 806,000
1875 1,050,000 .
1876 1,103,000 363,000
1877 982,000 505,000
1878 902,000 679,000
1879 932,000 745,000
1880 1,049,000 739,000
1881 1,176,000 940,000
1882 1,126,000 836,000
1833 1,129,000 835,000
1884 988,000 821,009
Furnaces in blast, December 25th, 1884
Production in 1884, per returns..
Stock on hand 31st Dec, 1883 . .
Shipments— Foreign 319,463
Shipments— Coastwise 197,251
Forwarded per Railway 17,286
Consumed in Foundries 237,000
Consumed in Malleable Iron and
Steelworks 231,000
(inc.) 2,000 .

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