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THE City of Glasgow, like manv other important places, has no
authentic record concerning" the date of its origin, or the ety-
mology of its name. There is, however, sufficient reason for be-
lieving that the Scottisb western metropolis was a place of consid-
erable importance during the time that the Romans retained their
acquisitions in Scotland. The name of Glasgow ia admitted to he
Gaelic, but th* interpretations of its meaning are both varied and
discordant. Little doubt of its existence as a Scottisb town is
traceable to the foundation of that religious society out of which
the venerable cathedral took its rise. Its present magnitude, beauty,
extensive manufactures, aud commerce sufficiently indicate the
early vitality and energy of its iuhabitants. In point of commercial
greatness and population, Glasgow may bo reckoned the second
city in the empire ; it is in the county of Lanark, situated on the
banks of the Clyde; 397 miles from London, 44 from Edinburgh,
187 from Aberdeen, 34 from Avr, 29 from Stirling, 213 from Man-
chester, the samo distance from Liverpool, 95 from Carlisle, 196
from Dublin, and 127 from Eelfnst. This distinguished city, in
addition to its other claims on our regard, is entitled to respect
for its venerable age; more than 1,300 years it has already num-
bered, and, unlike the myriads of sons and daughters to whom
it has given birth, its beauty and vigour have augmented with
Its age. St. Kentigern. or Mungo, was the reputed parent, who
founded a bishopric upon the site of the futuro city in the year
660; the tomb of this saint is still shown in the cathedral. John
Achaius, who bad been invested with the crozier about the vear 1124,
erected the present cathedral, which was consecrated in 1133. Some
years after this, William the Lion elevated the rising town to the
rank of a royal burgh, with the privilege of an eight days' fair and a
weekly market. In 126S the mace was borne before a" provost and
bailies, and a seal was allowed them distinct from that of the bishop
and chapter. In 1345 Stockwell Street Bridge was built, at the
joint expense of Bishop Rae and Lady Locbow. Prior to this period
the principal street was Dry gate ; some small tenements near the
head of this street once formed part of the town mansion of the
noble family of Montrose; Rotten row was then also one of the
chief streets. In 1450 the city and barony of Glasgow were raised
by James II. at the supplication of Bishop* Turnbull into a regalitv ;
in consequence of this proceeding, the bishops therefore obtained
the nomination of the civil authorities. Bishop Turnbull next
year induced Pope Nicholas V. to issue a bull for the erection of a
nniversity ; Rotten row was the original site, but eight years after-
wards Lord Hamilton bequeathed a tenement and four acres of land
on the north side of Blackfdars church, where the college was
situated until 1870 ; since then the Glasgow University has been re-
moved to Gilmorehill. In 14S4 the 'Iron church was built; this
edifice was destroyed by tire in 1793. It was soon after re-built.
The endowment of the University contributed essentially to the
enlargement of the town ; yet, several years subsequently, the in-
habitants did not exceed 1,50(J in number ; the majority resided in
the neighbourhood of the Cathedral, and about the precincts of the
Bishop's palace; but as the population increased, the habitations
gradually extended towards the cross. On the formation of the
Society of Fishers, the Saltmarket soon gave convenient access to
the Clyde; this humble community built Bridgegate (then called
Fishergate), and appears to have been the first commercial
company established in the city— fish, chiefly salmon, then
being the staple of its trade. In 1527 the streets of Glasgow were
stained with the blood of two martyrs to the principles of the
Eeformation— Jeremiah Russell & John Kennedy, the latter a youth
of eighteen years of age; their deaths rather accelerated than re-
.tarded the progress of the opinions they had avowed. Forty-five
years after that event the High Church was opened as a Presby-
terian place of worship; but in 1662 episcopacy being restored and
enforced by the bayonet, the persecutions of the Presbyterians be-
came as fierce as when impelled by the intolerance of popery; and
an inscription on a fine monument beyond the Infirmary records
the names of three of its victims— James Nisbet, James Lawson,
and Alexander Wood, who, in 1684, " were martyred for their ad-
herence to the word of God and Scotland's covenanted reformation."
It may be remarked that this monument has been renewed three
times. The present one was erected and unveiled with great
ceremony rather more than twenty years ago. The sanguinary
efforts to establish prelacy continued, with more or less violence,
until the happy revolution gave permanence to the presbytery.
In 1638 was made the first purchase of land for the formation
of a public green; but it was not until 1773 that the entire plot
(described elsewhere) became the property of the city. During the
rebellion of 1715, the citizens of Glasgow displayed great zeal in
the cause of the then reigning family; they despatched six hundred
men, at their own expense, to join the royal army, and a ditch
round the town, twelve feet broad and six feet deep, was commenced,
but the speedy overthrow of the Stuart faction dispensed with the
necessity of, its completion. In 1763, James Watt, who was educated
in Glasgow, withdrew to a private room near the Broomielaw, and
during his seclusion, with a single assistant, commenced those ex-
periments that issued in such momentous results. Forty-nine years
afterwards, the unpatronised Henry Bell, of Helensburgh, launched
his little '* Comet" on the Clyde — the first Bteamboat which plied on
any water, and proved its independence of wind and tide. The 12th
of March, 1782, was memorable for the extraordinary height of the
tide ; the Clyde rose upwards of 20 feet above its usual mark, and
completely insulated the village of Gorbals. In 1787, a strike
occurred amongst the weavers against a reduction of wages. The
1 — A-R
men cut the webs from their looms and burned them in the streets.
So serious did the riot grow, that the military were called out and
the people were fired upon, several persons being killed and wouned.
It affords an instructive glimpse relative to the distribution of the
population in those days to read that the now deserted Drygate was
the seen*; of the disturbance. Those killed were buried in what
was then the Buburb of Calton ; six thousand people attended the
funeral. In the wars which were waged against the revolutionary
leaders of France, and their successor Napoleon I., from 1791 to
1815, Glasgow displayed her loyalty in a conspicuous manner. Her
citizous mustered as' volunteers in great force, with the view of re-
pelling the anticipated invasion. Sir John Moore, who fell at
Corunna, was a native of the city. In 1819-20 the distress and dis-
content which pervaded the country were largely felt in the district.
A body of half-famished weavers, to whom political objects were
ascribed, having assembled in force at Bonuymuir, near Kilsyth,
were dispersed by the yeomanry. The incident is memorable as
having occasioned the last executions that have taken place in Scot-
land for a political offence. James Wilson, a weaver from Strath-
aven, was convicted {on insufficient evidence it is now believed) of
having taken a leading part iu the movement. He was first hanged
and then beheaded. Hardie and Baird were similarly dealt with
at Stirling; their monument is in tho Sighthill Necropolis, Glas-
gow. The passing of the Municipal Reform Act gave here, as else-
where, a great impulse to the general interest in public matters,
and the benefits derived from it wore vastly enhanced about forty
years ago by obtaining parliamentary sanction to an act extending
the municipal boundaries. Formerly, Glasgow proper stood sur-
rounded by the adjacent burghs of Calton, Gorbals, &c— much as the
city of London does— a mere speck in the centre of what was to all
l intents and purposes, except in the matters of government and ad-
ministration, one city. Now the whole are embraced.
Tbe river Clyde divides the city into two unequal parts, that
portion occupying the northern bank being the chief; this com-
prehends the old and new towns, with the districts of Calton,
Bridgeton, Anderston, Brownfield, and Finniestou ; the division
on the opposite side of tbe river consists of tbe Barony of Gorbals,.
including Hntchesontown, Laurieston, Tradeston and Kingston.
Tbe communication between these two divisions of the city is by
seven bridges, two of which are of stone, two of granite, and one of
iron, while two are suspensiou bridges ; that at the end of Jamaica
street, called Glasgow Bridge, is conspicuously elegant, aud consists
of seven arches, the curvature being so very trifling that the transit,
by it is attended with no iuconvemeuce. The noble quays extend
from this bridge in a westerly direction, allbrding altogether 19,242
lineal feet of quay wall ; and it is here that the vessels by which,
this part of the river is crowded discharge and take in their car-
goes. Included in the extent of quay wall just mentioned, is;
Kingston Dock, the area of which is 5% acres. What was known
as the Stobcross Dock, but which now has received the name of
the Queen's Dock, the works of which were projectod in 1872, and',
are the most extensive iu Scotland, was opened on the 19th Sep—
tember, 1877. Tho dock covers an area of 33 acres. Its lengths
3,000 feet, breadth 700, and average depth, 20. The entire cost of
the work was £1,600,000. This section is tho most impor-
tant, including as it does the entrance and swing bridge. The'
basin is connected by means of a branch from Maryhill with the'
whole railway system of the kingdom. Commodious sheds range
along the greater part of the line; aud, owing to the admirable'
regulations established, and the commanding width of the-
line, notwithstanding the prodigious amount of business transacted;,
the operations of the port are accomplished without confusion or
noise, and with surprising celerity. The new Graving Dock at
Govan, the largest in Scotland, was opened In December, 1875, and
is 560 feet long, and 72 feet wide at its entrance ; the depth of water-
on sill being 12 feet 6 inches at high water. On the 9th of April,
1851, the foundation stone of tbe "Victoria Bridge was laid by the
Duke of Athole, and a gorgeous municipal and masonic procession
gave eclat to this memorable event. An iron bridge has been substi-
tuted for the Hntchesontown Bridge, which spanned the Clyde at
the foot of tbe Saltmarket. The new structure has, in order to do
honour to the memory of tbe late Prince Consort, been named the
Albert Bridge. Tbe foundation stone was laid with great ceremony
on the 3rd June, 1870, by the late Earl of Dalhousie, the then Grand
Master Mason of Scotland. But two years prior to that period the
operation of placing the granite pillars upon which the bridge rested
was carried on, so that the most formidable part of the undertaking
had been got over when the foundation stone was laid. The bridge
was opened without any ceremony on the 21st June, 1871. It is-
nearly level with the roadway, and spans the river in three arches,,
and in structural and ornamental design is extremely elegant. The
outside painting is in green and gold, and medallions are shown
upon the bridge of the Queen and the late Prince Consort..
The cost of this superb structure and its adjuncts approach,
nearly £65,000. The engineers were Messrs. Bell and Miller,.
Glasgow. The suspension bridge, between Glasgow Bridge'
and the Victoria Bridge, for foot passengers, gracefully
diversifies the pontine communications between the north
and south sections of the city; it is one of the finest
bridges in Europe, with a span of 420 feet ; the chains rest on hand-
some piers, with columns of the Grecian-Ionic character in cast

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