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Arthur's Seat, on the east of the city, rises to the height of
feet above the sea, -with a conical summit, abrupt to the we:
where is a range of precipice facing the city, called the Salisbu:
Crags. From its summit twelve counties are visible. To the nort]
are the ruins of St. Anthony's Chapel and Hermitage, and neai
the foot is St. Anthony's well ; west of Salisbury Crags is the Iowcl
hill of Saint Leonard, where existed in former days a religiousL
establishment and a cemetery. The whole of this region is roman- J
tically grand, and derives additional interest from its being the I
locality in many interesting scenes in "The Heart of Mid-
Lothian." The Queen's Drive, a carriage way made in 1S44-47,
winds round Arthur's Seat, and ascends to such a height as to
afford a magnificent view. Arthur's Seat is included in the Quee7i's t
Park, and Holyrood Palace is very near the base of Salisbury
Crags. At the opposite or south-western extremity of the park is
the village of Duddingston, with its loch, much frequented by!
anglers in summer, and a very gay scene in winter during frosts,
when skaters and others resort to it to enjoy themselves on the
ice. Bruntsjield Binks are extensive open grounds situated on the
road to Morningside, and are well adapted for the recreation of
the citizens and for bleaching grounds ; here the national game
of golf is often played. A Roman Catholic nunnery, the Convent
of St. Margaret, was erected here in 1834. To the east of this com-
mon are the Meadows, the property of the city, extending almost
to Newington. This tract of level ground, adorned with many
trees, is about three-quarters of a mile in length, and a little less
than a quarter of a mile in breadth, and it resembles rather one
of the rich verdant fields of the Netherlands than a park in thei
northern kingdom. The walks are kept in a state of praiseworthy
neatness, and no carnages or horses are permitted except in a road
which crosses the Meadows through an avenue of trees, and in the
Melville Drive, which passes along the whole length of the
southern side.
Saint Bernard's Well is a medicinal spring near Stockbridge, on,
the Water of Leith. The water is sulphurous. Lord Gardenstone 1
purchased the property, and erected over the well a small Doric
temple, with a circle of columns supporting a dome, and having
in the centre a figure of Hygeia, the goddess of health. At one;
time this spring was much visited in the morning by citizens
who had complaints, real or imaginary, which the fancied virtuesj
of Saint Bernard's waters would remove ; but now Stockbridge
and its spring are surrounded by streets, and its rural attractions!
having disappeared, the medicinal ones of the well have become]
all but neglected.
Restalkig, or Bestalric, is about a mile east of the Old Town,
between the sea shore and Holyrood House. It was formerly an ;
independent parish, with a collegiate church, the fragments oft
which are still remaining. The burial ground was formerly much!
used by the Episcopalians. Close to Restalrig are the spacious,
Piershill Barracks for cavahy, enclosing a large parade ground.
The Theatre Royal, on the site of the old Adelphi Theatre, which
was burned down in 1853,stands at the head of Broughton street and
Leith walk. The Royal Lyceum llieatre is in Grindlay street, The
Royal Princess's in Nicolson street, and Moss's Theatre of Varieties
in Chambers street. The Assembly Rooms are in George street, and
were erected in 1787 ; they form part of a plain building, orna-
mented by a portico and pillars. The Hopetoun Rooms, in Queen
street, are also appropriated to balls and concerts. Exclusive of
the balls here, many others, as well as concerts, take place during
the season, under distinguished patronage. The national game
of golf has several clubs to promote its practice. There are curling
and skating clubs also, and a royal company of archers ; the latter
had the honour of being the king's body-guard during the visit of
George IV., and more recently to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, on
her return visit from Balmoral in 1859, and were again present
when Her Majesty unveiled the statue erected in memory of
Prince Consort, in 1876.
Markets.— The Poultry, Meat, and Pish Markets are built on
the rising ground at the south end of the North bridge, and are
approached either from Market street, Cockburn street, or the
North bridge. The Waverley Market, in Princes street, is the only
market in the city for the sale of fruit and vegetables. The market
days are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Public meetings,
concerts, etc-, are h Id in this market. There are also markets at
Stockbridge, and in Broughton street for the convenience of those
vicinities, and likewise a corn market and one for cattle— the
former in and the latter contiguous to the Grassmarket. The
New Corn Exchange, in tbe Grassmarket, was erected in 1849, from
a design by Mr. Cousin. It has a facade in the Italian style, but
chielly consists of a structure of iron and glass, 150 feet long and
98 feet broad.
Cemeteries. — The Edinburgh cemeteries are all tastefully laid
out with walks and flowers, and are worthy of a visit. On the
south is the cemetery of the Grange, on the west that of Dairy, on
the north-west that of Dean, on the north that of Waiviston, and
ou the north-cast that of Rosebank. Many of the most celebrated
persons wh" have died in Edinburgh for the last thirty years are
interred in these cemeteries.
Tbe parliamentary burgh of Edinburgh, which consists of the
entire parishes of Greensiile, High, Lady Tester, New Greyfriars,
New North, Old, Old Greyfriars, St. Andrew, St George, St. John,
St. Mary, St. Stephen, Tolbooth, Trinity College, andTron.and
parts of Canongate, Duddingston, Liberton, North Leith, St. Cuth
bert, and of South Leith, contained in 1871 a population of 196,970,
and in 1881, 228,190; showing an increase in the ten years of 31,220.
The royal burgh comprises the following parishes, viz. : Green-
side, High, Lady Yeste - , New Greyfriars, New North, Old Greyfriars,
St. Andrew, St. George, St. John, St. Mary, St. Stephen, Tolbooth,
Trinity College, andTron.
JJEITH, the seaport of Edinburgh, a parliamentary burgh, and a
coast guard station, is situated on the south shore of the Frith of
Forth, at the mouth of the Water of Leith, a stream which rises
in '."lie Pcntland Hills, and flows through the north of Edinburgh.
It is distant from the Royal Exchange of Edinburgh rather more
than one mile and a half. The road between Edinburgh and Leith
is called Leith walk, and is a noble street, busy with incessant
traffic. The original name of this town was Inverlcith, which sig-
nifies the mouth of the Leith ; and though it is indebted to its
proximity to Edinburgh for its '•ommercial prosperity, it has often
suffered greatly from being involved in the fate of that city, and
also from the jealousy of its inhabitants. In 1485, the magistrates
of Edinburgh ordained that no merchant of the city should take
an inhabitant ot Leith into partnership, and that none of the
revenues of Edinburgh should be farmed by an inhabitant of
Leith. The first great disaster which be f el this rising town was
its seizure and burning by the Earl of Hertford, 1554. Three
years afterwards Leith was again visited and injured by the same
general, and in the year 1549, it became involved in almost every
transaction of importance during tbe regency of Mary of Lorraine,
in her efforts to oppose the Reformation, and sustained the horrors
of a protracted siege, a garrison of French troops holding it in the
interest of the Regen , while it was assailed by tbe Reformers and
their English auxiliaries. Mary Queen of Srots mortgaged the
superiority of Leith to Edinburgh, redeemable for one thousand
merks, with reversion in favour of Botbwell, upon which the
citizens of Edinburgh marched to Leith. and by taking possession
of it destroyed its independence. In 1643, the Solemn League and
Covenant was signed at Leith, and the inhabitants have ever
evinced the sincerity of their attachment to it. In 1650, Lambert,
the parliamentary general, took possession of the town, and when
Monk became commander-in-chief, he resided for some time in it,
and by order of Cromwell the citadel was repaired and greatly
strengthened. During General Monk's residence be induced a
number of English to reside here, who infused a spirit of mercan-
tile adventure into the inhabitants. In 1715. Leith fort, which
was called a citadel, was seized by the Jacobites, who, after
holding it a short time, and plundering the Custom House,
hurriedly evacuated it during the night. This fortress was
situated about a quarter of a mile to the west of the Custom
House, and there only remains of it now the arched gateway. To-
wards, the close of the last century the celebrated Paul Jones
threatened it, but a sudden storm coming on, the buccaneer was
obliged to make a precipitate retreat The subsequent history
being involved with that of Edinburgh, our readers are referred
to our history of that city for the details. In 1838 Leith was
separated from Edinburgh, to which it had been sold in 1567, and
the common goods, customs, rates, &c, were vested in the provost
and magistrates of ihe town, with the exception of the revenues
arising from the harbour and dock dues. The magistrates of
Leith have the power of admiralty over Leith to a certain extent.
Leith is irregularly built, and most of the older streets are crooked
and narrow. There were ten wards of police, each of which for-
merly had two commissioners, chosen by the inhabitants ; but the
commission is now vested in the Town Council, who have the
charge of watching, lighting, and cleansing the town. The town
is divided by the river, which is crossed by a stone bridge and three
draw bridges, into two parts, called North Leith and South Leith.

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