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ante-rooms, a library, and a hall for assembling the whole school.
The Aeademv was opened in 1824, and is calculated to accommo-
date above tiUO pupils. Tl management is vested in fifteen di-
rectors, chosen bv the proprietors or shareholders from their own
body. The directors have the appointment of a Rector, four
classical and English masters, and masters for mathematics and
arithmetic, French and German, mechanical and free-hand
Drawing, writing, and book-keeping.
Edinburgh is famed for the number and excellence of its educa-
tional institutions. The Industrial or Ragged Schools, of which
the first was instituted in 1855, and which provide food as well as
education, are a great boon to the children of the most wretched
classes, and have saved very many from growing up in ignorance
and vice, fitting them for respectable and useful places in society.
Numerous Sunday schools are ill beneficial operation. Many pri-
\. i academies and schools of a superior grade are conducted
upon the best plans of instruction, and will be found noticed at
l.l'ic .iid of the Trades' List in the Directory. The Normal Schools
of the Established Church and Free Church are extremely efficient
and useful. They have contributed much to raise the average
standard of attainments among teachers in Scotland.
The Orplian Hospital, Dean.— This institution was projected in
1727, by Andrew G-airdner, merchant in Edinburgh ; and in 1733
a house was hired, and thirty children received in it. In 1735 an
edilice was erected near the Trinity College Church ; but by the
increase of the city this situation being rendered unhealthy, the
present building was erected in 1833, from the designs of the late
Mr. Thomas Hamilton. The revenue is derived from voluntary
contributions and legacies; in addition to the interest on accumu-
lated donations since its foundation. About 120 boys and girls,
including presentees and boarders, are maintained in the insti-
tution, the benefits of which are not confined to any district of
Scotland. When admitted, they must be of the age of seven, and
not above ten years ; they receive the benefit of a thoroughly good
education; suitable to their station in life, a godly bringing up,
and a comfortable home. Boarders from any part of Scotland are
now received into the -Hospital at £16 per annum for boys, and
£14 per annum for girls, which includes all expenses of whatever
Trinity Hospital, the oldest charitable institution in the city,
was founded by Mary of Gueldres, in the year 1461, for the re-
ception of thirteen poor persons. The building was demolished in
1846, along with Trinity College Church, to make way for the North
British Railway, and the funds were distributed in outdoor relief.
By iuterloeutor of the First Division of the Court of Session, of
3rd February, 18-0, anew scheme was authorized for the distri-
bution of this charity. The number of pensioners, of whom one-
eighth are incurables, on the higher scale of pension of £25, has
been fixed at 60, of whom 22 are appointed by private patrons, and
on the lower scale of pension of £15 at 100. Applicants for the
benetit of tins fund require to have resided in Edinburgh for two
years at some time, and supported themselves by their own in-
dustry during that period, without aid from any charity, or be
widows or children of burgesses, and must be in decayed circuit
stances at the date of their application, and not under 50 years of
age. except "where they are prevented *rom working by incurable
disease, in which case there is no limit in point of age.
Alexander Fu?id.~ Formerly this fund was administered by the
Governors of the Trinity Hospita 1 , in conjunction with the
Trinity Hospital Fund proper ; but by interlocutor of the Lords of
Council and Session, of 3rd February, 1880, the management has
been vested in a body of trustees, and a scheme adopted by the
court for its future administration. Under this scheme the free
income is to be divided amongst twelve beneficiaries, eight men
and four women, with a maximum pension of £27 15s. tid- In
the event of the free income of the fund being more than
sufficient to provide for these, the trustees have power to appoint
additional pensioners, and they have discretionary powers as to
the amount of such pensions. Applicants for the fund must be
unmarried when elected, and not under 50 years of age, excepting
any additional beneficiaries whom the trustees may appomt, in
the selection of whom there shall be no restriction of sex or
marriage. The beneficiaries shall be indigent persons of good
reputation who have not fallen into decay through their own
vice and prodigality, and who are not in receipt of parochial
relief. First, Those of the kindred of Mr. Alexander of
Knorkhill, who died in 1696, either upon his father's or his
mother's side ; Secondly, Those of the surname of Alexander,
who shall apply within three-score days next after any vacmcy
shall be publicly announced : and Thirdly, Other persons qualified
as aforesaid as the patrons shall think fit. All persons bearing the
name of Alexander, whether as their parents' name or their hus-
bands' name, shall be deemed to fall within the favouring clause of
the bequest. Applicants not claiming on the footing of being
entitled to a preference must have resided in Edinburgh for two
years, and for that period must have supported themselves by
their own industry, or at least without aid from any charity.
The Royal Blind Asylum and School was formed by the amalga-
mation of the Asylum for the Indnstrious Blind and the School
for Blind Children, at one time located in Gay field square. The
idea of this ancient institution was first communicated by Dr.
Blaekloek to Mr. Miller, who were both bb>d from their infancy,
but it was chiefly through the active and benevolent exertions of
Dr. David Johnstone, minister of North Leith, aided by a sub-
scription of £20 at the commencement from the celebrated Wilber-
force, that the institution was founded in 1793. In 1836 the
school for blind children was founded by Mr. James Gall, and was
opened with only one pupil. Mr. Gall was himself a printer, and
having seen some of Abbey Hauy's books in Paris he determined
to give the Bible to the Scotch blind in raised type. Her Majesty,
in 1853, by a donation of 260 guineas , set an example which has
been followed by a few since, which secured the perpetual right
to nominate one pupil. In 1S76 the school premises in Gayfield
square, and those for females in Nicolson street, being found too
small, the directors seeured four acres of ground at West Craig-
millar, a lovely southern suburb, and opened the building now
occupied as school and home. The educational appliances are of
the first order, and notwithstanding great scarcity of funds the
directors do not seem to have spared expense in supplying the
essential apparatus for the training of blind children in music, &c.
Books in Braille type are printed on the premises. In 1806
property was bought in Nicolson street for £1,575 for the male
department, and in 1822 other property, in the same street, for
£2,2hU, as a home for the female blind. The lower part of these
buildings is advantageously laid out in shops, while the upj>r
part is retained as a barracks for the young men connected with
the institution. These establishments are fitted up with every
comfort and accommodation for the inmates, who now number
247 in all— -49 adult females, 156 adult males, and 42 boys and
girls. In the industrial department the females are employed in
sewing the covers for mattresses and feather beds, knitting
stockings, &e. The males are chiefly employed in making mat-
tresses, brush s, baskets, mats, ship fenders, &c, and in the
weaving of sacking, matting, and " rag carpets," no less than 18
looms being employed in this work. The sales of the abovekinds
of work tor 1S84 amounted to upwards of £28,000. The Nicolson
street buildings have recently undergone extensive alterations, at
a tost of about £3,500, an elegant new fayade, surmounted by stone-
laced dormer windows, and a handsome cornice having been
added, with a large centre doorway, and on either side two
spacious windows, separated by stone pillars, surmounting the
Royal arms. In a niche above the windows is the late Handyside
Ritchie's bust of Dr. Johnstone, the founder. The governing body
consists of the Earl of Haddington, president ; four vice-presi-
dents, and eighteen directors, chosen at the annual meeting of
subscribers of half a guinea and upwards. The endowments
amount to £10,000, but a debt of £25,000 hangs' heavily on the
The Jnstitutioji for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, estab-
lisheJ in 1810, is a large plain structure, situated in Henderson
row. The expense of the building, furnishing, &c, was upwards
of £7,0u0. Her Majesty is the patroness, and the Duke of
Buccleuch the president.
'J he Magdalen Asylum was originally instituted in 1797. The
building, plain and commodious, is situated in Canongate, and
will accommodate from fifty to sixty penitents. This charity is
supported by contributions, bequests, and the profits arising from
the work of the inmates.
There is also an institution known as the Girls 1 House of Refuge,
or Western Reformatory, at Dairy, in the western suburbs ; and
another, called the Edinburgh Industrial Home for Fallen Women,
at Alnwick Hill, near Liberton.
The Ministers' Widows' Fund. — This meritorious scheme, origin-
ated in 1743, received the sanction of Parliament in 1744, and was
established on its present footing by Acts passed in 1778 and 1814.
By the latter Act it was provided that an addition of 20 per cent,
on the former rates should be imposed ; thatcverv person in future
admitted to the benefice for the fi.-st time, or to an office in a uni-
versity, should pay a contribution or entry money of £10. A
grant was made of the stipends of the vacant parishes. The four
annnal rates, to one of which every minister and professor is
subject, are £3 3s., £4 14s. 6d., £6 6s., and £7 17s. 6d. The widow
is entitled to an annuity, corresponding to the rate her husband
had chosen ; and the children, if he leaves no widow, to provisions
of £100, £150, £200, or £25,0, according to the rate the father may
have paid. Similar schemes have been formed by the Society of
Writers to the Signet, by the parochial schoolmasters of Scotland,
and by the dissenting clergymen ; but this scheme is particularly
interesting as having been the first of i's kind.
Horn's Cliarity distributes the interest of £3,500 to day labourers
out of employment at Christmas, &c.
Dr. Robert Johnston's Bequest of £3,000 is equally appropriated
in finding employment for the poor, in clothing the bovs in
Herio's Hospital, and in support of poor exhibitioners at the
The income of Mr. Strathan's Estate is bestowed in small annual
sums on poor old people not under 65 years of age, and on orphans
not above twelve.
Scougall's Bequest.— 3o\m Seougall, a merchant in Leith, be-
queathed £2,00 J, the interest to he paid to daughters of merchanta
(not shopkeepers) in Leith. They must be Episcopalians, but
whom failing, members of the Established Church. The bene-
ficiares are nominated by the clergyman of St. James'.
The Charity Workhouse, which is situated in the southern dis-
trict, was erected by voluntary contributions in 1743. The princi-
pal funds for the support of this institution are a tax on the
valued rents of the city, collections at the church doors, charitable
donations and contributions. The average number of its inmates
is upwards of 700. There is also another workhouse in the parish
of St. Cuthbert, which was opened in 1762, and is conducted
nearly on the same plan as the former.
The House of Refuge, in Canongate, is for the reception of all
persons in a state of destitution.
The New Royal Infirmary, Lauriston place, the foundation stone
of which was laid in 187", was opened by Lord Provost Boyd, in
October, 1879, and is considered to be the finest building of the
kind in the world ; the cost of its erection was £350,000.
The Royal Public Dispensary, in Richmond street, was founded
in 1776, by the late Dr.Andrew Duncan, and is liberally conducted,
but still too limited in its scale for a population so large a* that of
Edinburgh ; consequently several others have arisen in different
localities ; including those exclusively for the eye and the ear.
The New Town Dispensary, in Thistle street, was instituted in
1815. and is supported by subscriptions.
Chalmers' Hospital, in Lauriston place, was opened in 1864. It
was erected, and is maintained, by funds bequeathed by George
Chalmers, plumber, in Edinburgh, "for the sick and hurt." The
management of the charity is in the Dean and Faculty of Advo-
cates. There are many other charities for the relief of the afflicted
poor, which will be found noticed, with their Iocality.tin the list of
public charities and institutions, as well as those for religious

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