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the Inner House o[ the Court of Session and one Lord Ordinary
are the judges of this c mrt.
The uigfi Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court,
and is presided over by the Lord Justice General, which office is
held by the Lord President of the Court of Session. Next to him,
and really the first acting judge, is the Lord Justice Clerk,
subordinate to whom are live other judges, who are also Lords of
Session. At stated times, the Lords of Justiciary proceed mi
circuits, holding courts in different towns. The Lord Advocate is
the public prosecutor, and by him actions are raised in this court,
according to Ms discretion. The causes which come before this
cjurt are tried by a jury of 15 persons, a majority of whom
decide the same, from whioti tbere is no appeal.
The Solicitors before the Supreme Court, as an association, were
first publicly acknowledged in 1754, by an act of sederunt of the
Court of Session, in which were set forth rules for their direction ;
these rules were altered and improved by another act in 1,72. In
17v»7, they obtained a royal charter, which erected them into a
body corporate, by the title Solicitors in the Court of Session, the
High Court of Justiciary, and the Commission of Teinds. Mem-
bers of this eorporarion are required to attend three classes ot the
Scotch law and conveyancing, previous to admission.
Sohcitors-at Law were incorporated by royal charter 17S0. They
formerly practised before the Sheriff Commissary and City Courts,
of which they had a monopoly ; but all are now entitled to prac-
tise before the supreme and inferior cour s like other law agents.
Entrants or candidates for admission are required to serve a
regularapprenticeahip with a member of the incorporation, and,
after going through a private examination, formally before the
Society, and now similar to other law agents, are admitted. In
1884, the Society obtained an act of parliament which after pro-
viding an annuity of £52 to each widow of all past or present
members of the society, the funds are to be divided among the
present members. The present privileges of members to practise
in the courts are reserved by the private statute.
Slier ijj Court of Edinburgh. — The courts are held in the Sheriff
Court, George IV. bridge. A court for the Leith district is held in
the Sheriff Court-room, Constitution street, Leith, on Tuesday, at 10
o'clock in each week during ihe sessions of court. The Leith district
includesthe parishes of Boutu Leith, North Leith, and Duddin^
stou (excepting that part of the parish of South Leith which is
within the parliamentary boundaries of Edinburgh). Appeals are
taken by the Sheriff every Wednesday at 12.0 o'clock, and an
ordinary court is held every Tuesday at 12.0 o'clock, and every Friday
at 11. u o'clock during session. A Sheriff Small Debt Court for the
County of Edinburgh is held within the Sheriff Court, Edinburgh,
every Wednesday, at 10 o'clock ; and for the Leith district every
Tuesday at 10.15 o'clock, within the Sheriff Court-room, Leith,
during the sessions of court. All civil causes are competent in
these courts for any debt or demand not exceeding the sum of £12
sterling. Summonses are issued for these courts daily at the
respective clerks' offices, George IV. bridge, Edinburgh, from 10
till 4, and Constitution street, Leith, from 11 till 3.
The Commissary Court.— Since the year 1830, the duties which
this court formerly performed have been transferred to the Court
of Session ; still, however, a commissary and three deputies take
cognisance of testaments of persons dying abroad, having property
in Scotland.
The Court of Exchequer.— This court, which till recently was
presided over by a chief baron and three ordinary barons, has
undergone such a change as to be virtually abolished. The duties are
now performed by certain judges of the Court of Session , in rotation.
The Lyon Court, which is nearly obsolete, formerly regulated
state pageants, executed the writs of supreme courts, and decided
upon armorial hearings. In the execution of the duties still re-
maining, the "Lord Lyon" is assisted by a body of messengers-at-
arms, heralds, and pursuivants.
The Faculty of Advocates.— The members of this society occupy
a position similar to that ot barristers in England. It appears to
have been instituted about the same time as the College of Justice
(1532), and was at first limited to ten members. Although candi-
dates for admission are not required to follow any prescribed
course of preparatory study, they must produce one of certain
University degrees held as qualifying, or pass a tolerably strict
examination— first on general scholarship, and then, after a laose
of a year, on civil law, international law, and on the laws of Scot-
laud. An advocate, when admitted, is privileged to plead in any
court in Scotland (unless debarred by special statute, as in the
Small Debts Acts), and also before the douse of Lords. It is from
this society, too, that the bench is supplied with judges, and that
the sheriffs of counties are selected. Though possessing no charter
of incorporation, it has always exercised corporate privileges, hv
electing its own office-bearers, the principal of whom is the
president, or, as he is styled, the Dean of Faculty. The library,
which is by far the largest as well as the most valuable in Scot-
land, will be described hereafter.
The Writers to the Signet are an important body, who have the
sole right of passing warrants under the seal or signet of the
reigning monarch, in order to render them valid ; in addition to
which they act as conveyancers, and as attorneys in the supreme
courts. This body, besides its other functionaries, has a professor
of conveyancing in the University of Edinburgh. The qualifica-
tions for admission are an apprenticeship for five years, and the age
for entering into indenture not under seventeen, provided always
that where an applicant for indenture is not under the age of nine-
teen and holds a degree in Law, or in Art s of a University of Great
Britain or Ireland, granted alter examination the period of inden-
ture may be three years. The members of this body amount to over
3 ?0 ;they have a valuable library, and an ample fund for widows.
The Justice of Peace Court is of no earlier origin in Scotland
than 16u9. The Justices are empowered to judge in cases of
breaches of the peace ; to regulate highways, bridges, and ferries ;
to see the laws executed against vagrants, beggars, transgressors
of the game laws, and frauds against the revenue, besides manv
other branches of jurisdiction. But the principal business of the
justices in Edinburgh comes before them as a court for a speedy
settlement of debts under £5, commonly called the Small Debt
lj — A-E
Court, which sits weekly in Edinburgh, and at longer intervals in
the different villages of the country.
The Convention of the Royal Burghs, instituted by James III.,
meets annually in Edinburgh, and consists of a commission and
assessor from each burgh. The Lord Provost of Edinburgh is
perpetual president, and the city clerk of Edinburgh is clerk of
the convention. This court had considerable powers until the
passing of the Burgh Kef or m Act, but is now much like » national
chamber of commerce. The place of meeting of the annual con-
vention is the court room of the High Court of Justiciary, when
held in Edinburgh, and the committees meet in the Edinburgh
Council Chambers.
Church of Scotland.
The parochial churches of Edinburgh are erected and
maintained out of the mnds of the burgh ; from the same
sourC' , and from the port dues at Leith and Fort Hopetoun,
the stipends of the ministers are derived. There are thir-
teen parishes, of which the ministers receive a stipend of £600 a
year, within what was the old parish of Edinburgh; whilst St.
Cuthbert's or the West Church and the Canongate, also old
parishes, are provided with stipends from other sources. Several
churches have also recently been erected by voluntary subscription,
of which the ministers are maintained without burden to the
funds of the c.ty. it will be enough to noiice only those ecclesi-
astical edilices which are moat important as architectural features
of the city, or from historic associations.
St. Giles's Cathedral.— This spacious and venerable metro-
politan church stands on an elevated site, in the High street,
forming one side of Parliament square, and before bhe alterations
and repairs, which took place between 1S30 and 1832, its shape
was cruciform, and its dimensions as follows : — Length from east
to west, 206 feet ; breadth at the centre, 129 feet ; at the west
end, 110 feet ; and at the east, 76 feet. A square tower rises from
the centre, surmounted by a crown, formed of intersecting richly-
ornamented arches ; from the apex of the crown springs a small
spire, the summit of which is 161 feet in height, and may be seen
from a great distan e. The renovation of the church has altered
a little its original form, as well as its dimensions. Of St. Giles,
the patron saint, little more is known than that he was born in
Greece, in the sixth century, and died in France. One of his arm
bones, enshrined in silver, was deposited in the church, which
was erecied in the fifteenth ceniury, on the site of the former
parish church of Edinburgh. It was made a collegiate church by
James III., in 1466, and was partitioned into four churches after
the Reformation, when it w«s appropriated to the Presbyterian
worship then established. When episcopacy was introduced into
the Protestant Church of Scotland, and Charies I. made Edinburgh
a bishopric, which it had never been in Roman Catholic times,
this was made the cathedral. Sine-; 168s it has been used for the
worship of the Scottish Established Church. It is proper to mention
that the Government contributed £12,OOU towards the alterations
made in 1830-2. St. Giles's has been the scene of important
historical events. Here John Knox preached; and here James
VI. bade farewell to his ScJttish subjects, before his departure to
take possession of the throne of England. Here Jenny Geddes
struck the first blow at the episcopacy of Laud, when she hurled
the old stool on which she had been sitting at the head of the
dean as he began to read from the book of Common Prayer. It
was in this church also that the solemn league and covenant was
signed by a committee of the Scottish Parliament and the English
commissioners in 1643. In 1871 a restoration committee was
appointed, with Dr. William Chambers as chairman. The object
of the committee was eventually to restore, as far as practicable,
the interior of St- Giles ; but to effect this step by step, as circum-
stances permitted ; and to c nfine operations in the first place to
the choir. In June, 1872, when the subscriptions for the above
object had reached £2, uOO, the committee, with the consent of
the authorities concerned, commenced the work. The galleries
were wholly removed, thereby developing the fine old pillars
which were mended with stone to resemble the original. The
baldachino, and the furniture of the Koyal Pew, were taken away ;
and the pews and the pulpit were removed. Under the direction
of Mr. W. Hay, architect, the passages were laid with Minton tiles,
bearing antique Scottish devices. A pul.it of Caen stone,
exquisitely carved by Mr. John Khind, an Edinburgh sculptor,
was placed against the pillar on the south side nearest the east
window. All the seatings are of oak. The Royal seat is in the
form of a throne of most elaborate workmanship of carved oak.
The lower part of the throne, to the height of four feet, is partly
close panelled, with ornamental Gothic tracery, and partly open
tracery and carving, surmounted with a delicately-carved cornice.
On the inside the seat and back to this height are stuffed and
covered with dark crimson morocco leather. The back of the
throne above this is elaborately panelled with Gothic tracery in
various forms of foliation, several of the compartments having
shields with Royal and national devices. A large circular panel
in the upper portion contains the ancient Royal arms of Scotland
—viz , the lion rampant on •* double tressured shield, with tne
unicorns as supporters. The sides of the throne are of open
traceried panels, with stiles supported with clustered buttresses
and crocketted pinnacles. There is then another carved cornice.
Over this is the canopy, of a polygonal plan, with elaborately
groined soffit, having ribs and carved bosses at the intersections.
'J he canopy is about 14 feet in height. The panels are separated
by stiles having crocketted pinnacles. These are prolonged behw
the base of the canopy, and giv* support to a series of cusped
arches, which add greatly to the effect of the design. At each end
ofihethr ne are five stalls for those in immediate attendance on
Royalty or the High Commissioner, and between these stalls and
the thrune are seats for the pages. The stalls are constructed like
the ordinary stalls of a cathedral with panelled and traceried
fronts supporting the book boards, and behind the stalls against
the wall is a beautifully panelled reredos with carved cornice.
The reading or prayer desk in front of the throne is a very

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