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tion stone was laid by commissioners specially appointed by
George IV. as patron. The original plan was to construct an edi-
fice bearing some resemblance to the renowned Parthenon of
Athens by which the "modern Athens" would be made more like
the ancient The finest monument in Edinburgh, and one which
forms a remarkable object even in a general view of the city, is
that to Sir Halter Scott. It stands in Princes street gardens, and
La beautiful structure, rising to the height of 180 feet, formed on
the model of the monumental crosses ot the middle ages. In the
centre is a marble statue of Scott, with one of his favourite dogs
at his feet the work of Steell. The design of the monument is
bv Geor"e M. Kemp, a self-taught artist, who died during its
erection" In the niches are figures of some of the principal
characters of Scott's novels and poems. The public are admitted
to the naileries of the monument at a small cnarge, and the view
from them is very flue. The foundation stone of this monument
was laid on 15th August, 1840 ; its inauguration took place in
August 18-16. The suitoe of Charles II., in Parliament square,
has" been already noticed. In the centre of St. Andrew square
stands the elegant column erected by sub caption, chiefly of
naval officers, to the memory of the first Lord Melville : this noble
pillar, the design of which was copied chiefly from Trajan's column
at Koine, was begun in April, 1821, and completed in August,
1S22 ; the entire height of the pedestal and pillar is 136 feet 4
inches, and the statue on the top 14 feet additional. Opposite the
Koyal Bank is a fine equestrian statue of the Earl of Hopetoun.
In the same square, facing George street, a group representing
Alexander and Bucephalus was erected by subscription in 1884
The equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington (by Steell) is
placed in front of the Register Office, Princes street. It was
erected by public subscription, and represents the " Iron Duke"
directing his forces on the field of battle. A fine bronze statue
(by Chantrey) of William Pitt stands in the centre of George
street, where it is intersected by Frederick street ; another statue,
bv the same artist, of GeoigelV., with Koyal robes and sceptre,
stands at a point where George street and Hanover street cross. At
?,he intersection of George street by Castle street, a statue of the
â–  Rev. Dr. Chalmers (by Steell) was erected in 1878. On the espla-
nade of the castle there is a bronze statue of the Duke of York,
uncle of her present Majesty, and also one of Colonel Mackenzie,
C.B., who served for 42 years in the 92na Highlanders, and who
died in 1S78. A fine monumental statue, erected in honour of the
second, Lord Melville, occupies an open space in Melville street, in
the western part of the New Town. The most recent additions
to the number of the Edinburgh monuments are statues of Allan
Ramsay, the poet, and of John Wilson, the author of "Nodes
Ambrosianoz," Adam Black, the publisher, Dean Ramsay, and Dr.
Livingstone, the great African traveller. They stand in Princes
street gardens, facing Princes street, not far from one another
At the east end of St. Colme street is the elegant Eleanor Cross to
the memory of the late Miss Catherine Sinclair, the authoress.
The Martyrs' Monument, in the old Calton burying ground, is a
tall obelisk, erected in 1845, to the memory of several gentlemen
who were banished in 1793 for advocating parliamentary reform.
There is also a beautiful monument to Alexander Smith in War-
riston Cemetery. In Charlotte square, at the end of George street,
is the statue of H.R.H. Prince Albert, the inauguration of which
took place in August, 1876, on the occasion of Her Majesty's visit
to Edinburgh. Thi3 statue was originated immediately after his
death in December, 1861. The design, by Sir John Steell, R.S.A.,
is that of an equestrian statue, 15 feet high, weighing eight tons.
and cast in five pieces, on a granite pedestal, 17 feet in elevation,
and 100 tons in weight. The Prince (as a Field-Marshal) is pre-
sumably returning the salute of the Volunteers, at the greatreview
h-ld in the Queen's Park, in 1860. The horseis modelled from one
of the Duke of Buccleuch's stud, and, viewed from St. George's
Church, as above, its handsome proportions, falling mane, and
sweeping tail, effectively augment the conception of the portrai-
ture. The total cost of the monument as it stands, with relative
improvements in the square, was about £16,500, of which £12,000
were available for the statue and £3.000 for the pedestal, which,
although designed by Sir John Steell primarily, was architec-
turally proportioned by the late Mr. David Bryce, R.S.A.
Club Houses.— The New Club is a superior building in Princes
street, erected by an association of noblemen and gentlemen. The
University Club, in Princes street was erected in 1866-7 at a cost of
nearly £14,000, and is in the ornate Italian style, with Grecian
decoration. The Scottish Conservative Club and the Scottish
Liberal Club have both fine buildings, also in Princes street. The
Caledonian United Service Club is situated in Queen street, and
the Northern in George street.
The General Post and Telegraph Office, erected on the
site of the old Theatre Royal, at the end of Princes street, is a
large and beautiful building in the Italian style, completed in May,
1866, at a cost of about £120,000. The foundation stone was laid by
the late Prince Consort, in 1861.
The Inland Revenue Office occupies a spacious building in
Waterloo place.
The Register House is the depository for the public records
and registers of Scotland. The records of all suits at law, and the
various documents which have been produced in actions before
the supreme courrs, are also placed here ; and in virtue of a late
act, the parish registers of births and marriages have been collected
here, whilst herein are deposited the returns of births, marriages,
and deaths sent in by the registrars from all parts of Scotland.
This establishment, important as it is, is almost peculiar to Scot-
land. The collection of documents deposited here is immense, and
is, of course, accumulating; but few are of ancient date, for the
greater part of the papers relating to this kingdom, prior to the
Restoration, were carried away, at a very early period, by Edward
I., and at a later era by Cromwell ; and a considerable portion of
those that were suffered to remain were unfortunately lost, or
destroyed in consequence of a fire, in 1700. The most ancient
state papers in this house are the letter of the Scottish barons to the
Popein 1320, and the acts of settlement of the Scottish crown upon
the Stuarts in 1371 and 1373. The building is situated at the east
end of Princes street, fronting the North bridge ; ft was planned
by Robert Adam, and is a fine specimen of the Italian style. The
frontage is 200 feet, and the width 120 ; the extended front is re-
lieved by a pediment and Corinthian pilasters above the entrance.
The structure is square with a circular saloon in the centre, sur-
mounted by a lead-covered dome, 50 feet in diameter. The
Register House was finished in 1822, and the cost was defrayed in
part by a grant from George III. of £12,000, arising from the sale
of forfeited estates, and the remainder by the Government, which
also provided for its maintenance. The front of the building is
ornamented by an equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, by
Steell. Behind the principal building is a new one, additional to
it, also in ItaJian style, completed In 1860, which cost £26,440.
The supreme manager is termed the Hepute-Clerk Register. In
consequence of the greatly increased demand for space to transact
the official business belonging to this important department of
the public service, a very large addition was made immediately be-
hind the site of the house where once Hogg, the Ettrick Shep-
herd, Christopher North, and their jovial companions were wont
to meet, and at which place the scene of the famous "Noctes
Ambrosimue" is laid. .
The Royal Exchange is in High street, It was founded in
1753 and completed in 1761, at a cost of upwards of £31,000. It is
quadrangular, and surrounded with offices, among which are the
City Council Chambers, the Magistrates' Court Room, and a num-
ber of municipal offices.
The Countt Buildings stand near the Parliament House, at
the corner of the High street and of George IV. bridge, a stieet
which takes its name from a bridge over the Cowgate. The general
plan is taken from one of the finest models of antiquity— the
temple of Erectheus. in Athens— while the principal entrance is in
the style of the choragic monument of Thrasyllus. The length of
the eastern front is nearly one hundred and three feet, and of the
northern front fifty -seven. The princ.pal floor contains a large
hall, fifty feet in length and twenty-seven in breadth ; a court-
room, forty-four feet long, thirty feet wide, and twenty-eight feet
high, a eommittee-room, &c. Above are offices for the sherift,
sheriff's clerks, &c. The building was finished in 1819, at an ex-
pense of £15,000. The County buildings having been found in-
sufficient, a beautiful new building was erected in 18S8, a little
to the south, on George IV. bridge, for the sheriff's court. It
is in the Italian style of architecture, and cost upwards ot
£44,000. ,. . ... ,
Fuel, Water, &c— Edinburgh is now well supplied with coal ;
the different railway companies, the Union Canal, and the neigh-
bouring pits constantly pouring in an ample quantity for the
large consumption. The city receives a copious supply of water
from the Pentland and the Moorfoot Hills, where reservoirs have
been construi-ted, from which it is brought by pipes. The supply
is constant, and almost entirely of the finest spring water ; it is
under the management of trustees elected by Edinburgh. Leith,
and Portobello. No city has purer water than Edinburgh ;
scarcely a trace of organic matter can be detected in it. There is
a large reservoir in the city, on the Castle Hill, for the purpose of
regulating the constant service. The water company was incor-
porated in 1819. and was transferred to the water trust in 1870.
Edinburgh is illuminated with gas, produced by two companies,
the works of one of which are situated in Edinburgh, not far from
the palace of Holyrood, those of the other at Leith, supplying
Leith as well as Edinburgh.
Trade.— Edinburgh possesses but few manufactures ; still there
are some departments in which it may justly boast a superiority.
Printing and publishing are carried on to a considerable extent,
and many valuable works of the age have emanated from the
Edinburgh press. The making of paper machinery, type-
founding, and the manufacture of gas and water meters,
iron and wire fencing, india-rubber goods, vulcanite, &c, are all
branches of importance. Edinburgh ale has long been famous
and there are many extensive breweries in the city that send
immense quantities to all parts of the world.
In Banking Edinburgh takes a high place, and her banking
establishments are conducted with a sagacity and accuracy which
have secured for them great success; their branches are spread
all over Scotland, and sub-offices have al»o been opened in the city
itself. The banks have commodious and many of them splendid
buildings. Th-> Bank of Scotland, in Bank street, the Commercial,
the Union, and the Clydesdale Banks in George street, the
British Linen Company and the Koyal Bank of Scotland, in St.
Andrew square, are particularly worthy of notice as fine buildings.
The Bank of Scotland occupies a very conspicuous place, looking
down upon the valley winch separates the Old Town from the New.
It is one of the many noble architectural ornaments of a scene
wmich as viewed from Princes street, from the Mound, and from
many other points, is one of the most striking and beautiful that
any city can boast. Except the Bank of Scotland, all the others
have their principal seats of business in the New Town. The
Bank of Scotland is the oldest banking company in Scotland, and
thus naturally assumed the name which it still bears, but it has
nothing of that character of a national institution which the Bank
of England in some measure possesses. It was established, how-
ever, by act of parliament (the parliament of Scotland), in 1695.
Next to it in antiquity is the Royal Bank of Scotland, incorporated
by royal charter in 1727. The British Linen Company, now
merely a bank, but at first also engaged in the linen trade, was
incorporated by royal charter in 1746. After this came the
Commercial Bank, established in 1S10, and the National Bank of
Scotland, established in 1825. The Union Bank of Sootland,
established in 1S30. and incorporated by act of parliament in 1862,
is the representative of several banks, one of which was originally
a company engaged not only in banking, but in the tobacco trade,
and was founded in Edinburgh not very long after the Royal
Bank. After it had become a mere banking company, it was long
one of the chief banks of Edinburgh, under the name of Sir
William Forbes and Co. Having united with a Glasgow bank, it
assumed its presentname, and it has head offices bothin Edinburgh
and Glasgow. The Clydesdale Banking Company, a Glasgow
banking company of recent origin, and having its head office in
Glasgow, represents in Edinburgh the Edinburgh and Leith Bank,

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