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Ur east LOTHIAN, liea in the south-eastern part of Scotland ; bounded on the north by the Frith of Forth, on the east by that
strait and also by the North Sea, on the south by Berwickshire, and on the west by Edinburghshire, Mid Lothian: from east to west
it extends twenty-six miles ; from north to south, at the middle, sixteen— at the east end it is not more than ten miles across, and at
the west end about twelve; its surface presents an area of about two hundred and eighty square miles, or 179,142 statute acres.
The Early History of this county is so intimately connected with that of Edinburgh, as to render nnnecessary a lengthened
recurrence to this subject. The Saxons denominated the whole country, lying along the sea and the Forth, Lothian; afterwards it
was divided into three parts, called, from their relative situation to each other, East Lothian, Mid Lothian, and West Lothian. In 1O20,
this district, with other parts of the Lothians, was ceded to Malcolm II. In succeeding centuries the shire suffered the horrors of
pillage and conflagration on all occasions of the armies of England being sent to invade the country, or to molest or punish the
capital. In 1296, and again in 1650, the sanguinary battles of Dunbar were fought within the county ; and in the critical year of 1745, it
was the scene of the conflict at Prestonpana— since which period it has enjoyed almost uninterrupted repose and tranquillity.
Soil and Sdrface, Produce and Manufactures.— In point of soil, cultivation and produce, this county holds the first rank in
Scotland ; and in some of these respects, particularly the mode of husbandry, it will bear a comparison with the most favoured districts in
England. The greatest elevations in East Lothian, above the level of the sea, are Traprain Law, 700 feet; North Berwick Law. 940
and Shartleton HUl, 1,615. During the reigns of David I., Malcolm rv., and William the Lion the acreage of this county was in the
possession of only a few barons, who at theii* pleasure disposed of not only the lands but the men who lived upon them, without hindrance.
jn these times tho kings, the nobles, and the churchmen were all tillers of the soil ; and in this district every manor had its ham*
let, its church, its mill, its kUn, and its brewhousc. The monks, indeed, were indefatigable husbandmen, and by their labour and skin
gave the county its first character for agriculture. In this point of view, it may be divided into four districts. The first is a sloping tract of
land,with a fertile soil. The second is a ride of ground north of theTyno, descending partly towards that river and partly towards the coas
land i comprehends a great proportion of the arable land of the county. The third consists of atract varying in breadth,elevated abovethe
midlands, and continuing along the base of tho mountains nearly the whole extent of the county. The fourth comprises an extensive
range of mountains which commences at the south-west extremity of the shire, and terminates in a high promontory called Sain
Abb's Head; the greater part of this is moor, but some spots between the hills are kept under a regular rotation of crops. Having nea
two sides begirt by the sea, the county derives a great part of its beauty and opulence from this circumstance. So commodiously ha
^ature disposed the surface of East Lothian into ranges of hills and fertile dales, that some tourists, from topographical retrospection
have declared Haddingtonshire to be the Northampton of Great Britain. Excellent gardens and orchards flourished in this county a
early as the twelth century; and pulse seems to have been cultivated here in the thirteenth — the iat(^.circumstance is attested by that
fact of the English soldiers, during their siege of Dirleton Castle, having subsisted on the peas which gi'ew in the adjacent fields. The
thriving state of the agriculture of this county in the fourteenth century is noticed by Fordun. He says, in 1836, East Lothian was
embroiled in warfare, and its field operations impeded by the outrage committed by Alan, of Wyntown in can'ying off by violence, one o
daughters of the Earl of Seton ; and ho adds, that so great was the ferment upon this occasion, that the labour of a hundred ploughs was
suspended during a whole year. The fertility of East Lothian in the seventeenth century is ascertained by a passage in " Whitelock's
Memoirs," where it is stated that the soldiers who accompanied Cromwell in his expedition into Scotland in 1650, were astonished to find
in that district " the greatest plenty of corn they ever saw, not one of the fields being fallow." But it is since the period of the union that
in this district particularly, agricultural improvements have manifested themselves extensively and beneficially, and called forth the ex
evtions and science of spirited individuals, proprietors of the soil ; they have introduced the best systems of husbandry, and employed the
most approved implements and machines— have drained, planted, and enclosed, until East Lothian has become one of the most beautiful
and productive shires in North Britain. The application of steam power here to the laborious operations of thrashing, &c., pre-
sent to the eye the aspect of a manufacturing district, from the number of tail chimneys which rise in every direction
Exclusive of farming which is the chief pursuit of the inhabitants, many on the coast are employed in fishing
fish-curing, salt-making, and commercial occupations; but manufactures are not extensive in any part of the county: linen and
woollen manufactories once existed, but have been long discontinued; the principal articles now exported from East Lothian are
corn, whisky, ale, porter, coal, earthenware, soap, and fish. The west of the shire abounds with coal; besides which, limestone and
red granite constitute the chief mineral substances.
Rivers, &o.— Several streams intersect the county, but none of them merit the title of river except the Tyne, which, passing
Haddington, falls into the sea at Tynninghame, where it forms a bay. The shire is destitute of natural lakes, but this deficiency
seems no way injurious to the district, and is amply made up by the Frith of Forth, which yields a large supply of fish. The North
British Railway passes through the county, and possesses stations in all the principal towns; there are also one or two brancheg
diverging from it.
Haddingtonshire comprises twenty-three complete parishes and two parts of parishes, and three royal burghs— Haddington, Dunbar
and North Berwick; these join with Lauder (in Bewickshire) and Jedburgh (in Roxburghshire) in sending one member to parliament, and
the county at large returns another. The present (1877) member for the county is the Right Honourable Lord Elcho. Accordmg to
the census returns for 1861, the entire county contained a population of 17,854 males; and 19,730 females; total, 37,634; in 1871 the
numbers were: males, 18,076; females, 19,695; total, 87,771.
1-1 8^9

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