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^T. ANDREWS is a city, a royal bui-gli, and seaport— and perhaps |
the most interestinf? town, as regards its ecclesiastical history, in.
North Britain ; 89 miles n.n.e. of Edinburgh, 10 miles from Cupar, j
Anstvuther, and Crail, and six from Leuchars, a station on the '
Edinburgh. Perth, and Dundee section of the North British Rail- i
way, and" stands within the bay to which it gives its name— wherein i
flow the Eden, and a small stream called the Kiuley. Its history is i
mingled with the civil and ecclesiastical auuals of Scotland, espe- 1
cially the latter; but the narrow space within which the proprietor)
of this work is confined in the descriptive notice of towns denies to
him the gratifying task of performing that ample justice to these
subjects which their importance demands, and which would have
been so ably and so elaborately treated by the authors of the
" Gazetteer of Scotland."
The city of St. Andrews in 1410 first saw the establishment of,
its university, which was the earliest of the kind in Scotland— it |
originated with Bishop Wardlaw, a magnificent and liberal-minded i
prelate; in 1411 it was endowed by a charter. The college of St. |
Salvator was erected by Bishop Kennedy in 1455, that of St. j
Leonard in 1512, and that of St Mary, or the divinity college, in [
1537 ; in 1747 the institutions of St. Salvator and Leonard were j
united by parhamentary statiite. The university library contains j
upwards of one hundred thousand volumes. The united college
has a chancellor, a rector, and principal, -with professors of Greek,
logic, natural philosophy, moral philosophy, humanity, civil history,
mathematics, and natural history. The college of St. Mary is an
institution of less consequence ; it consists of a principal, and j
professors of divinity, church history and oriental languages. The |
site of the Madras college is on the south side of the South-street, '
immediately behind and comprehending within it part of that line .
old ruin of the Black Friars, which will thus be associated with an ;
improved system of education for centuries to come— uniting, '
tastefully and appropriately, something of the splendour of de- j
peparted with much of the elegance and usefulness of present I
times. This noble institution, which was endowed by the late Dr. ;
Bell, the distinguished founder of several similar establishments, ;
both in this and in other towns in Scotland, cannot fail to secure (
to his memory, for ages to come, that veueratiou and esteem to ■
which, as a benefactor of his race, he is so well entitled. The |
foundation stone was laid on the 9th April, 1832. i
The town originally consisted of four streets; Swallow-street |
(which has for centuries disappeared), towards the sea; North-;
street, in which a number of elegant edifices are now situated, j
together with the buildings of the united college, partly old and
partly new; Market-street, which runs through the middle of the I
town; South-street, which is spacious and well paved, terminati'3 .
towards the east in a beanti^'ul view of the ruins of the cathedral, |
and towards the west is a fine arched entrance, being the old city
gate. The streets all concentrate towards the old cathedial, and i
the still more ancient tower of Regulus, or, as it is more commonly |
called, " St. Rule." In this quarter stiU stands a great part of the i
magnificent wall reared by Prior John Hepburn, in 1516; it runs ;
along the south side of the town, and contains fourteen round aad
square towers, each having a niche on the outside for a saint, and ,
appears one of the most interesting relics in the place. From the '
top of St. Regulus' tower there is a beautiful view of the Bell rock, ;
the bay, the city, and the surrounding country. The ruins, rapidly
decreasing, of the onca formidable castle, the scene of Cardinal.
Beaton's cruelty to others, and of bis own assassination, lie towards
the north-east, and jut out into the sea. On the shore is a small
eminence called the Witch Hill, the place where those convicted of ,
witchcraft suffered. Near this ypot is a monument riiised in 1842
to the memory of the martyrs— Wishart. Mill, and others; it is in;
the form of an obelisk, and is forty-five feet in height. ,
As before stated, St. Andrews is a royal burgh, by virtue of a
charter conferred by David I., which was confirmed by Malcolm II., ■
the unfortunate monarch who was slain in Glammis castle in 1034 ; ;
the charter, together with the silver keys of the city, and the axe
which was used for the decapitation of Sir Robert Spottiswoode
and some other royalists are still to be seen in the town house. The
city is governed by a provost, a dean of guild, and four bailies,
twenty-nine councillors, and a treasurer. The burgh unites with
Cupar, the Anstruthers, Kilrenny, Pittenweem, and Crail in send-
ing one memberto the imperial parliament. St. Andrews enjoyed
at one period an extensile foreign trade, and so lately as the reign
of Charles I. it owned from thirty to forty trading vessels. The
harbour is not large, but it is safe when reached; its most dangerous
wind is from the north-east. ' The export traffic is chiefly in
pr.tatoes and grain, and the import in coals, pavement, timber, &c.
A branch line of railway from the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee
section of the North British Railway, at a point near Milton, in the
parish of Luchars, was opened some years ago. under the title of
the St. Andrews Railway Company. The length of the branch is
five miles. Four banking establishments are in operation hire,
namely— branches respectively of the Commercial Bank of Scotland,
of the Clydesdale Banking Company, the Royal Bank of Scotland,
and of the Bank of Scotland. There are three principal inns—
these are the Royal Hotel, in South-street, the Star and the Crosa
Keys in Market-street.
Nearly opposite St. Mary's college, on the north side of the street,
stands the town church, originally built by Bishop Turgot, in 1112,
and dedicated to the Holy Trinity. It was in this church that
John Knox preached his famous sermon which led to the destruc-
tion of the cathedral and monastic buildings. It is a large but in-
convenient edifice about 150 feet long by 60 feet wide. The present
building was erected in 1800 upon the foundations of the old one,
and the interior has of late been very much improved. Within
the door, and on the right side is the superb monument of Arch-
bishop Sharpe, erected by his son in 1769; it is composed of white
marble ; the figure of the prelate is represented in the attitude of
kneeling, and below is exhibited, in relief, the assassination of this
ecclesiastical dignitary. It was thoroughly repuired in 1850, at an
expense of upwards of £100. Besides the two Parish chuiches, an
additional one has been erected. There are also a Free church,
and Episcopal, United Presbyterian, Baptist, and Independent
chapels. Golf, one of the national games of Scotland, has its strong-
hold in St. Andrews, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club having been
established in 1754; the Queen is patroness, and it numbers
upwards of 800 noblemen and gentlemen as its present members ;
they hold two great meetings annually. St. Andrews, whether
as regards its early importance in the history of Sctland, with
which it is so intimately associated — its numerous relics of
antiquity which everywhere arrest the eye — its venerable religious
edifices, and its seminaries of learning — must be admitted to be a
place possessing undying excellence to the mind of the antiquary.and
replete with interest to the well-informed historian, the contempla-
tive tourist, and the casual visitor. Denuead. a small village, is
partly in this parish and that of Cameron. Boarhills, Kincaple,
and Strathkikness are also small villages distant about four miles
from, and in the parish of St. Andrews. The market is held on
Monday; and the fairs on the second Monday in April, the second
Tuesday in August (old style), and the first Monday after the 10th of
November. The entire parish of St. Andrew's embraces 11,482
statute acres, and in 1871 had a population of 7,851, of which num-
ber the town contained 6,320.
St. Leonards is a small parish so intersected by that of St.
Andrews that it is identical in all its interests. It consists of
detached portions in and around the city, and is surrounded by
the parishes of Kingsbarns, Crail, and Denino, and is connected
both historically and politically with the city and parish of St.
Andrews. Its area is about 1008 acres, and its population in 1871
was 741.
Cameron parish is situate about three miles south of St. Andrews.
It is bounded on the north by St. Andrews, on the south by Carnbee
and Kilconquhar, on the east by Denino, and on the west by Ceres-
Its length is about six miles, and its breadth four miles, compris-
ing an acreage of 9,325. The greater portion of the land is well cul-
tivated, the remainder being pasture, well drained by numerous
small streams. Coal and iron abound in this parish. There is a
Parish church and school at Cameron, and an United Presbyterian
church at Lathones, and a private school at Radernie, which are
small places in the parish. Denhead is a small village, a portion
of which is in this parish. Population of the parish in 1871, 1,158.
Denino, or as it is sometimes spelt Dtinino, parish is situated
four miles south of St, Andrews, bounded on tho north by St.
Andrews, on the south by Crail and Carnbee, on the east by King-
horn, and on the west by Cameron. It is three miles long and
about the same in breadth. The land is highly cultivated, and is
intersected by woodlands and streams. Sandstone and ironstone
abound in this parish. The Parish church is a stone building in the
Gothic style of architecture, erected in 1826. Acreage, 2,737.
Population in 1871, 325.
Leuchars parish is nine miles in length by five in breadth, and
contains an area of 13,354 acres. It is bounded on the east by the
German Ocean, and the parishes of St. Andrews and Kemback on
tlie south, by Dairsie and Logic on the west, and by Forgan and
Ferry-Port-on-Craig on the north. The small rivulets or burns of
Mobray and Moonzie fall into the Aden near the small village of
Seggie; the former of these streams divides the parish into two
portions. The surface is level and the soil tolerably fertile. The
village of Leuchars is pleasantly situated about a mile from the
coast and six from St. Andrews, on the road from that town to
Dundee. The majority of the inhabitants are employed in the
weaving of linen. The Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee branch of
the North British Railway passes through the parish, and there is
a station in the village. The church is very ancient, and con-
sidered one of the most perfect specimens of Saxon architecture in
Scotland; it is supposed to have been erected in the twelfth
century. There is also a Free church in the parish. Guard
Bridge is partly in this parish and partly in that of St. Andrews.
Seggie and BALaiuLLO are small villages also id this parish, which
in 1871 possessed a population numbering 1,727.
POST OPFICB South street, St. Andrews, George Murray, Post Master.
Letters from all parts arrive at half-past nine morning, from Edinburgh, London and the South at one noon, and from all parts of
Scotland at eight evening, and are despatched to Edinburgh, Loudon and the South at half-past twelve noon and half-past two after-
noon, and to the South of Scotland at half-past five evening, and all parts of Scotland at eleven night.
Money Order and Telegraph Offi^ce and Savings Bank.
Post Office, Leuchars, David Henderson, Posf jVasier.— Letters from all parts arrive (from Cupar) at nine morning, half-past
twelve noon and seven evening, and are despatched thereto at a quarter before seven morning, a quarter before two afternoon and a
nuarter before five evening.
' Money Order and Telegrajih Offi,ce and Savings Bank.
^*,. Letters for Denino, Cameron, Denhead, Strathkinness, Guard Bridge, Boarhills, Seggie, and Kincaple should be addressed
" near St. Andrews." ..,,,,, ,, ,„ ^
■ *■ Letters for the villagoB of Leuchars and Balmullo should be addressed near Cupar."

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