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JVILMARNOCK is a large nncl important raannfncturiug town general and more particularly scientific knowledge. The Kilmar-
in the parish of tl^at name, and district of Cunninybame, 65^j uock Atheuieum was instituted in 18i8, for promoting the social
miles 6.W. of Edinburgh (through Glasgow), 21 s.w. from Glasgow, and intellectunl impiovement of the inhabitants, by providing a
12 N. by E. fiom Ayr, and between 6 and 7 e. by n. from Irvine; iirst-class reading room, the maintaining of a library and adopting
situated on level ground near the confluence of the Kilmavnock such other means us are usually employed by similar institutions,
water with the Irvine. Two centuiiee ago this now thriving and The reading room of this association, largely supplied with news-
populous town was a mere hamL-t, dependent upon the baronial papers, magazines and other periodicals, has always been popular
castle in its neiehhourhood. The advantages of the place as a and flourishing. The hbrary soon became extensive and valuable,
Bite for manufactures were the pn sence of cual, healthiness of , and is now amalgamated with the Kilmarnock Library. Therooms
Bitualion, a populous country around, and abundance of provisions. I in which the business of these three important societies arc carrifid
For nianv years and geuerations, however, it seems to have bei-n on form part of the New. Corn Exchange buildings. Another
distinguished only for the production of broad flat bonnets, so long ' institution worthy if notice is the Kilmarnock Philharmomc
the characteristic wear of the Scottish lowland peasantry, as also Society. It consists of about seventy ladies and gentlemen, and
the striped cowls which yet bear the name of the town. As this every facihty is given for the admission of others possessing tho
business increased the population augmented, and in the year
1731 the number had swelled so much that the parish church was
found inadequate for its accommodation, and an additional one was
erected. Subsequently, and for a considerable period, the staple
manufacture was that of carpets, and in this branch it yet stands
pre-eminent. In 1887 the ascertained product of this article
amounted to £150,000; it is made of evei-j' possible kind and tex-
ture, from the plainest to the richest colour and fabric. A few
years since the Brussels carpet was successfully imitated, and
after that a variety, termed the threc-plic, of extreme beauty and
clui-ability, was introduced. An extensive trade is carried on in
necessary capabilities. Besides thestt- institutions, there are in the
town two masonic lodges and a society of the Independent Order
of Oddfellows. A great object of interest in this town 16 the
observatory, erected in 1818, by the late Mr. Thomas Morton, at an
expense of' £1,C00. The observatory, which is 70 feet in height,
and furnished with valuable telescopes and other apparatus, stands
on a fine site, and commands a delightful view of the surrounding
country as far as the Frith of Clyde. Mr. Morton obtained con-
siderable celebrity for his mechanical genius, and received various
honourable testimonials from his countrymen and the Board of
I Trade, and in 1B35 he was elected a member of the Royal Society
the manufacture of shoe's for exporlation— likewise in that of [ of Arts. In 1847 was erected in the market cross a very handsome
leather, for the tanning and dressing of which there arc several
highly respectable and large establishments. There are two
brewerieB, two rope walks, several extensive iron founding and
machine making establishments, the Caledonian Foundry, belonging
to Messrs. Andrew Barclay & Son, being tho nmst extensive and is
carried on in a highly spirited and scientitic manner. One particular
description of productive industry and skill seems, however, of late
years, to have outstripped ail those before mentioned— namely, the
making and printing of shawls, for in the year 1837 the amazing
number of 1,128,814 of this denuminaMon of garment issued from
the manufactories of this place amounting in value to £2:?0,0Ui).
The demand since that year has greatly increased, and although
for the present there seems to be a slightfalling off, the productions
of thi various establishments in this brunch are excelled by few
other towns. A factory for manufacturing cotton has also bt-en
recently established. There is also an establishment for the manu-
facture wf a new kind of water meter, a patented article, invented
by an ingenious townsman, Mr. Thomas Ki-nnedy. The importance
of Kilmarnock has been much increased by a large engineering
establishment in connettion with the Glasgow and South-Western
railway, for tlie manulacturc and repair of locomo ive ongint s. car-
riages and other apparatus. Many of the shiips of Kilmarnock are
very handsnme ai;d furnished -with taste in the varioi s wareu
suitable to the inlialiitants of a large and respeclable town.
The banking establishments are, branches of tho Bank of Scot-
land, the Royal Bank of Scotland, the Commercial Bank of Scotland,
the National Bank of Scotland, the Union Bank of Scotiand, the
Clydesdale Banking Company, and the British Linen Company,
together with a Local Bank for Savings, apart from the one
recently established in connection with the Post Office. Surrounding
the town are extensive coal fields, from which fuel is obtained for
the works of Kilmarnock, besides large supplies transmitted con-
tinually by railway to Ardrossan, Ayr, Troon and Irvine, where it
is shipped to various places. There arc live incorporated trades,
namely, the lionnet makers, skinners, tailors, shoemakers and
â– weavers; the first named is the most ancient, it was incorporated
in 1646.
The aspect of the town is agreeable, especially in its central part,
where the streets are regularly laid out. and the greater portion of
the houses are of freestone ; it has of lale cor.siderably extended to
the south and east, and in these directions Ints now many elegant
edifices. The Town House, built in 1805, contains a court room lor
the magistracy, and public oifices. In 1814 a commodious news-
room was erected in the centre of the t.iwn. The new court-house
in St. Marnock street, erected in 1852, is an elegant structure,
attached to which are the sherifi^s chambers and the offices of
the procurator fiscal, and in the same locality a gaol has been built.
The Corn Exchange buildings comprise a large public hall of great
convenience and beauty, and alargenumberof public offices were re-
cently erected by an influential joint-stock company, under the auspi-
ces of the Town Council, and form an architectural ornament to the
to wn.TheKilmarnock Academy is a handsome and commodious struc-
ture, worthy of ihe town and highly ereditable to the architect,
Mr. William Railton. It is situated in North Hamilton street, and
monument to the memory of Sir James Shaw, Bart., late Lord
Mayor of London, who was a native of Mosshead, in this neigh-
bourhood, where he was born in 1774, and died on the 22nd October,
1843. The statue of the deceased is eight feet in height, mounted
on a pedestal of the same altitude. The formei, which is cut out
of a solid block of marble, weighing ten tons, represents him in his
civic decoration as lord ma> or, and is altogether a very fine produc-
tion of art. The civil government is ves'.ed in a provost, six
baillies, and eighteen councillors. The magistrates preside in the
eivil and criminal courts by turns, and Ihe justices sit weekly in
what is called the small debts court. This town joins with Dum-
barton. Port Glas:;ow, Renfrew and RulhergUn m returning one
member to parliament. The Duke of Portland is the principal
proprietor of Kilmarnock and its neiglibouring lands.
Ihe civil parish of Kilmarnock consists eeck-eiastically of four
parislicf-, the Low, the High, St. Marnocks, and St. Andrews, each
containing an Established ehurch. Part of the original or Low
eliurch is of great antiquity. The church of St. Marnock's, erected
at a cost of iS.t'OO, is a large handsome edifice, seated for 1,700
persons, and ornamented with an admirable Gothic tower. The
Free church has four places of worship in the town, and a fifth in
the village of Ceookedholm, in Ihe parish. Ihe United Presby-
terians have also three churches in the town, besides a mission
station, which has been recognised b' that body as a pastoral
charge. Their church in King street, erected as a Relief church, ia
very neatly designed, and has a singularly elegant spire, forming a
conspicuous object in the scenery of the town. There are also
chapels for the Original Seceders, the Evangelical Union, the Scot-
tish Episcopalians and the R' man Catholics, besides places of
worship for other religious denominations. The oldest churchyard
is now clo'-ed, but a public cemetery, covering seven acres of
ground, was opened in 1875.
The most remarkable object in this vicinity is the ruin of Dean
Castle, formerly the property of the Boyds, Earls of Kilmarnock.
It stands in a "dean," or hollow, less than a mile north from tho
town. It was burnt down in 1785. When in a perfect state it was
considered capable of sustaining a long siege, as, according to
tradition, it had the means of drawing secret supplies through
subterranean ways that communicated with Craufurdland Castle,
two miles distant. Kilmarnock House, another edifice, once belong-
ing to and ihe last residence of that noble family, is situated in St.
Marnock street. From this house proceeded the last unfortunate
earl, in 1745, to join tho standard of rebellion, which cost him his
head. This building is now occupied as an industrial school. The
Fever Hospital and Dispensary, a stone building, situated on an
elevated site, was oiiened in 18G8, the cost of its erection being
The markets, which are held on Tuesday and Friday, are abun-
dantly supplied with every necessary article of domestic consump-
tion, including grain and cattle. Fairs are held for cheese, i!kc.
2nd of February, for cattle second Tuesday in May, last Thursday
in July (commonly called tho "gooseberry fair"), and the last
Thursday in October for horses. The acreage of the parisli of Kil-
marnock is about 9,444; the population in 1871 being 24,(J72; the
occupies a square plot of ground, about an acre in extent. It is population of the town at the same period was 23.7i
built of red sandstone, in the Gothic style of architecture of the i The parish of Riccarton is in the district of Kyle, lying on the
Elizabethan pericTd, and is designed to accommodate 60O pupils. ; left or south bank of the Irvine river, which separates it from Kil-
boys and giris, where they are taught various branches of education ! marnock. It contaius about 7,6u0 acres. The village stands on an
byable masters. It was erected by the burgh School Board at a i eminence, a mile to the south of that town, but is almost connected
cost of £5.O0U. and was opened in June, 1870. There arc also two i with Kilmarnock by a long street. Tlie parish extends aboiit six
well-built and commodious elementary schools in High street and : miles in length by between two and three iu breadth, and includes
Low Glencairn street, also erected by "the School Board. Besides the village of Hlirlford, at which latter place is situated the ex-
these, there are several private schools of a high character, and tensive works of the Eglinton Iron Co., a large manufactory of fire
many others that impart instrucion to children of the poorer clay avtieles. and several extensive collieries. A very handsome Estab-
classes. In addition to the-e are Kav's Endowed Sehools iu Wei- lished church andaFrcechnrch haveal^o been crectedin theimmedi-
lington stnet and Bentinck street, founded by Alexander Kay, a ateucighbourhood, liutinKilmarnock parish, andalarge subscription
native of Kilmarnock, who left the sum of £6.000 for the building sebool, built for the education of the cliildren of the working-ciass.
and endowment of these schools and also £l.i'IIO for the purchase The village of Riccarton is remarkable for having been the residence
of a public library for the use of the inhabitants. The institutions of the venerable Sir Rowland Crawford, Die maternal uncle of Wa!-
Ikewise comprise some wt II conducted societies. The most important lace, with whom, it is said, the hero sometimes sojourned ; and ii
B the Kilmarnock LibraiT, founded in 1797 bv a few of tho wealthy in- was to Riccarton that be generally retired after performing any of his
habitants of the town andnaighbourhood. In 1811 it consisted of 340 very dai'ing exploits, before he openly unfuilad his country's banner,
vnloraes: et the present time it numbai-s from '?,O0O to 7,000 volumes. On avc-ngmg the treachei-ous murder ai his naole. and Citner chief-
§Q^ U. ^ 409

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