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NIGG (Kincardineshire).
iXBERDEEN, a city aud the capital of the county to which it
gives name, is 109 miles nearly north from Ediuburgh, 103 s.e. by
E, Iroiu Inverness, and oi'J':^ from London, and by means of its rail
commnnicj-tion, it possesses easy access to any part of the United
Kingdom. Aberdeen is of great antiquity, aud is supposed to have
been known to the Uomans by the name of Devanha. Antecedently
to this period, all relating to any history ot Aberdeen or its oritjiu
is involved in obscurity; and for many ages alter no records appear
to afford any authentic accounts relating to it. Aberdeen is proba-
bly amoug the earliest of the burghs in Scotland found entitled to
any royal marks of distinction; and from various circumstances
occurring in history it is reasonable to presume that at a very early
period it was a place of Sume cojnmerce. As far back as 1153, it
seems to have been known aa such to the Normans ; and in
Macphersou's treatise on commerce it is observed that, in the year
1179, Estyn, one of the joint kings of that country, landed and
pillaged the town in the course of ;i piratical cruise along the
British coast. In early times Aberdeen was fretiuently visited by
royalty; and it appears that King William, suruamed the Lion,
had an edihce for his occasional residence hei'e, which vnxa
situated at the lower side of the town, near the east end oJ
what is called the Green, and was dignided by the title oi
Palace; this edifice was afterwards bestowed on the monks of the
Holy Trinity, who were about that time iuirodnced into Scotland.
Her present Majesty Queen Victoria haa visited Aberdeen, and
during her residence at Balmoral, many ot the inhabitants have
benefited by her patronage. Thw lirat charter that was obtained by
Aberdeen is supposed to have originated about the year 1179, and
was granted by King William. It coutirmed to the burgesses the
power of enjoying their trade of merchandise as freely, quietly, fuUj
and honourably as their ancestors did in the time of Malcolm, his
grandfatlier; this charter was dated alPerth. KiugWilliam afterwards
granted two other charters; boththese,which were dated atAberdeen
28th August, are still in a good state of preservation, and liave the
great seal of Scotland, in green was, appended to each. The gi-eat
charter was granted by Charles I. and is dated at Oatlauds, 163a, all
previous charters are by it confirmed. This charter was subse-
quently coniirmed by parliament. From these documents aud other
town's arms on the top, which stood in the old GouncU Chamber.
The Pro\ ost's Room is a commodious apartment, looking into Broad
street. The Town Clerk's Room has much the appeiirance of an
advocate's otflce, as has also that of his assistants, which con-
tain a number of old trophies of the city, not altogether devoid
of interest. In the upper floor are the apartments of the Town
House Keeper, and a number of rooms lor general purposes.
The Court House is situated in the centre of the north-east por-
tion of the building, aud is thus removed from the noise of street
traffic. The public entrance is by the doorway in the centre of
the building in Castle street. The entrance haU is very lofty, and
has a groined freestone roof aud elaborately carved gorbal ter-
minations. The staircase leads by an easy flight to the main
corridor or Coui't HaU, and then divides into two side flights which
lead up to the Town and County Hall, which is situated in the
centre^of the building facing Castle street. This hall is of largo
size. The ceiling of the staircase, which measures about 35 feet
square, is panelled with pitch pine, liight is admitted by three
lofty windows un eitlier side. The Court-room is situated on the
east side of the main corridor, which is connected with the liret
lauding. The room is 51 feet in length by 39 in breadth, and 33
iu height. At the west end is a small gailory, access to which is
had by two narrow staircases entering from the corridor. The
accommodiiiion provided for the pubhu will seat abuut buO indi-
viduals. The whole room has been huished in a most artistic
manner, and presents a pleasing appearance to the eye. Aceesa
may be had by seven different entrances. On the left ol the
corridor on entering is a staircase, which leads up to a suite of
rooms set apart for the procurators fiscal an.* their clerks, a
omall Court-roum lor the trial of summary cases, hearing proofs,
examining bankrupts, &c. At the end of the corridor is a passage
leading to the Advocates' Buildings. A continuation ot the south
passage eastward leads to the corridor of the eastern entrance to
the buildings immediately under the old tower reserved tor the
The Post Office is in Market street, and was erected in 1876 to
take the place of the old one erected iu 1S45, which, since the trans-
fer of the telegraphs, had been found far too limited for the despatch
historical accounts, it is beyond all doubt that trade and commerce i of the business whicli is rapidly expanding year by year. It is a
were a prevailing pursuit.
Aberdeen is pleasantly situated upon an eminence rising gi-adu-
ally from the sea, the beach presenting a beauLiiul even surface of
fine hard sund. \^'hen the tide is receding, a person may walk for
many miles along the shore, and contemplate a noble expanse of
the German Ocean, which, from the town, has a fine appearance,
and adds to the beauty of its picturesque situation. The new
stre ■[ • are spacious, uniform, and elegant; the houses are built of
graiiiic, which the ueighbourhood produces. A noble street, named
Union street, running to the west is particularly handsome. About
the middle of this tine street a magnificent gnuiite bridge, designed
by Telford, of one arch, spanning one hundred and thirty feet, is
thrown across a ravine, through wliich runs a brook called the
Denburn. The Denburn is now arched over, and the Deuburu
Valley Hallway, which forms a junction between the Caledonian
and th3 Great North of Scotland Railway, runs over it for a short
distance. The new joint station is a maguiilceut structure, un-
doubtedly the liundsomest iu Scotland. The waiting rooms,
i-efreshment rooms, ticket oflices, and cilices of the companies, arc
all fitted up auJ finished in a very superior manner. The design ol
the roof cannot fail to eHcit great admiration. It is modeUed after
the roof of the Victoria Station, Pimlico. The stone work of the
structure has a fine appearance, as approached from Guild street,
aud the whole is well and substautiahy built. It was designed by
handsome building, built of white Kenmay granite, and consists of
a basement, parily underground, and two storeys above the street
level. The two principal elevations, facing Market-istreet and the
harbom*, are designed in the Renaissance style. Tae chiet elevation,
facing Market-street, is rouuded ofi' at the two extieme corners,
which contain doorways, with carved consoles aud moulded corni-
ces ; and the centre division, containing thechief entrance, piojecta
slightly in advance ot the remaining portion. The architect for the
building was Mr. R. Matheson, and the contractors Messrs. Coutts
and Sons, of AberdL-en. In lt)ti4, the number of letters deli\ered at
Aberdeen Post Oliice was 3,349,ii7:i, and in 1871 they had increased
to ■±,157,4U0. The total number of newspapers passing through the
ofiice in lb71 was 5t)7,023; ot book packets, circulars, aud patterns,
502,359; of post cards, ^73,503; money orders issued, oL',71i; amount,
i;5tj,3ti4; money orders paid, 39,7Uu ; amount, £78,153; amount of
commission ou money orders, iJ51 78. Id. Savings Banks deposits
number 2,46U ; amount, £tj,811 ; withdrawals number l,uay ; amount,
The Music Hall Buildings at the west end of Union street are the
property of the Aberdeen Music Hall Company, Limited. Thia
elegant edifice is decorated with a portico ol six columns of the
Ionic order, thirty feet .in height. The principal entrance, uudei"
the portico, leads into an outer vestibule, having a flight of six steps
conducting to the grand saloon, which is sixty feet in length and
Mr. Smith, the city architect. The modern part of the town has twenty leet in breadth, and is dividiid into three compartments by
been all built within the last sixty years, aud is oi very considerable fluted Ionic columns, with oruauiented capitals and corresponding
extent. Besides Union street, there are three other tine streets, pilasters. The centre part is thirty-two feet high, and the ceiling
namely, King street, Market street, and George street, aud for some is a dome, finislied with coflering. In the middle of the building,
time past the city has been extending in every direction. In Castle aud opening into the saloon, through a screen of columns, is a
atreet, stands a highly finished statue of George, late Buke of
Gordon, erected by the gentlemen of the county. It is composed
ol that beautiful grey granite for which Aberdeen is so noted, and
represents His Grace in a martial cloak, and head uncovered, with
one foot placed upon a cannon, and both hands supported by a
sword. The pedt'Stal is a sciuare slab of granite, and the height
of the whole is about twenty feet. At the corner of Union
terrace, near the bridgf, is a beautiful bronxe statue of his late
Royal Highness the Prince Consort, placed on a pedestal of
poUahed Peteriead granite ; and in Union street, immediately
opposite Market street. Htauds a fine statue of the Queen, in white
marble, on a polisiied Pt-terhead granite pedestal— it is an excelleut
lil.eness, and was executed by the late Alexander Brodie, of Aber-
iieeu. in the town house is an ancient coat of mail, said to have
buen worn by the provost of the city, at the battle of Hariaw; also
the axe ol the machine known by the name of the maiden, which in
times of old was used for the decapitation of criminals
spacious gallery or promenade, seventy feet in length, finished with
pilasters, and an arched and panelled ceiling, it communicates on
the one side with the ball room, and on the other with the supper
or reireshment room, and the card saloon. The end of the gaiiery
opens into the banquetting room, which is of the same dimensiona
with the haU'room, the walls are finished with pilasters, in imita-
tion of Sienna marble, with ornamental capitals. The whole forms
a superb suite oi rooms, opening into each other by folding doors,
and presenting vistas the full length of the building. The ex-
pense of erection was i;ll,5UU; the foundation stone was laid on
the "iOlh of April, 182U. The Corn Exchange, erected in 1854, is tba
property of a joint-stock company; the cost ol erection was abont
£1,000. The Masonic Hall is in Exchange-sti-eet, the foundation
stone was laid on the 27th of September, lb71. The building
contains, on the ground floor, three shops; on the first floor
there are two large rooms, which may be leased either along
with the shops or separately. The remainder of the building
The new Municipal and County Buildings and Court House are used exclusively by the Masonic Lodge in Aberdeen, and consists
situate in Castle street and Union street, and form a most imposing \ of a hall 50 feet by 32 feet, and 20 feet high, with a gallery at
and magnificent structure. They comprise nil the oflices required , one end. There are also three rooms adjoining, and in connection
for municipal purposes, also a noble County Ball aud Court House, with the haU. The hail has three lolty windows to Stirling
The entrance to tlie municipal portion is by the door in the base of < street, filled with stained glass. The building was designed by
the tower facing Union buildings. Abroad circular stone stair- Mr. James Matthews; the cost was i'2,500, which was delrayed
case of easy asceut leads to the Council Chamber, the rooms set
auart for the oiiicials, and other "^artmtnts. Ou reaching the first
landing a lobby to the lelt k^ads to the Council Chamber. The
Committee Room is entered Irom the same lobby, and is a square
apartmtnt, larger in proportion to its use than the Council Chamber.
Above tbe mantelpiece is a mirror in apaiiel t^' carved oak, with the
by shares of ±'1 each. The Market (_iuss, near the western ex-
tremity of Castle street, cannot be too highly admired, whether
as an architectural object or as an antiquarian curiosity. It is
of an hexagonal form, with a pillar rising from the centre. In a
cornice around the upper part of the structure are twelve com-
partments for figures, cut in relief; ten of these contain tU«

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