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feat fully interesting, the scenes were rapidly shifted, and tragical
incicionts occurred in quick succession. Darnley was proclaimed
king at the market cross on the 2Sth of July, 1565, and on the next
morning, within the chapel of Holyrood, he became the husband
of QuetJii Mary. On the yth of the following March, David Rizzio,
the Italian favourite of the queen, was murdered, in the palace, by
I>arnley and his confederates. On the 19th of June the queen gave
birth to a son, afterwards James the Sixth of Scotland and the
First 'of England. On the 10th of the ensuing February, 1567,
•while Barnley sojourned in a secluded house, called the
Kirk-o'-Field, near the site of the present university, it
was blo\ni up by gunpowder, and he lost his life. Many
circumstances coincided to involve the Earl of Bothwell in
suspicion of planning the murder, and the queen of a guilty privity.
Be this as it may, Bothwell, having divorced himself from his wife,
hecamo the husband of the queen in three short months after its
perpetration. This shameless marriage look place on the 15th of
May, I5t)7, in the palace of Holyrood, and was the occasion of fresh
disturbances in Edinburgh. So foimidable was the insurrection,
that the queen and Bothwell, on the 6th of June, fled from the
popular odium, lirst to Borthwick Castle, and thence to Dunbar,
■which abandonment of the capital was followed by the entry of
thjce thonsaud insurgents, who took.; possession of the seat of
government. Shortly afterwards the queen was brought back to
Edinburgh, a spectacle for the insults of the populace, and the
next day was sent a prisoner to Lochleven Castle. A regency
* was then formed in the name of the infant son of Mary. James VI.,
and the L^lai-l of Moray was proclaimed regent ; but the assassination
of this popular favourite, two years after, at Linlithgow, threw the
capitftl into confusion. The struggle between the contending
parties v; - renewed with alternate ascendancy ; the Earl of Lennox
became the new regent, and Eu-kcaldy of Grange the provost of
. tbo town and governor of the castle, declared for the queen,
whose party held a parliament in the Tolbooth, while that of the
regent held theirs in the Canongate. Khkcaldy seized all the
turns he cjuld find, and nlanted a battery on the steeple of St.
Giles, dud being supplied by France with money and ammunition,
he and hit- associates became formidable antagonists to the
regency. The Earl of Morton and the regent, on the other side,
having ujiited, fortified Leith, and for two years the two parties
waged a lluotuating warfare, until Queen Elizabeth of England, at
the ertreaty of Morton, sent a small army fromBerwick, which soon
reduced tho castle ; and the captive Kirkcaldy, with his brother,
were shoi tly afterwards banged at the cross, although they had
iBiu-rendercd under a promise of merciful treatment.
But tho time had now arrived for the young king to assume the
govei-nrueut himself. He entered the city with great pomp, and
inimediately convened a parliament in the Tolbooth, and tranquility
was, in som A degree, restored. The Earl of Morton, the late regent,
ivas now accused of being an accessory to the murder of Daruley,
was convicted, and executed by a machine called the *' maiden,"
similar to the guillotine, alleged to have been an invention of his
own. The Reformation being now firmly estabhshed, education
fcecame an object of solicitude ; the University of Edinburgh arose,
ttDd around it many subordinate colleges and schools, by which the
rharaoi r of the city was elevated. The poor, also, were not for-
goflfcn ; lunds for their maintenance were gi-antcd from the revenues
of the i^uppressed religious houses rnd their lauds. K'Ug James,
though he had assumed the throne, held the sceptre with a feeble
'hand. The chief nobility, clergy, and a considerable portion of the
community,- were jealoiis of monarchy, and the uncompromising
thnracter of the new religion, with the austere manners of its pro-
S"essors, were little in unison with the manners and practices of the
court. They preferred presenting James with 5,OU0 merks, about
»280 sterling, to provide an entertainment, and shortly after they
were required to send a beautiful ship to Denmark, at the cost of
^500, to bring home the king and his bride ; they also presented the
bride a valuable jewel, pledged to them by the king as security for
a considerable sum advanced him. Still these munificent donations
did not exempt the citizens from " intolerable impositions and
fjrievous exactions." The execution of Queen Mary, in 1536,
excited gi'eat indignation in Edinburgh, but neither the king nor his
subjects displayed their feeling by any deeds. In 1591, the Earl of
Bothwell made a daring attempt to seize the person of the king.
Having introduced himself at night into tho court of the palace,
be advanced to the royal apartment ; but before he could force the
doors the alarm was given, the citizens flew to arms, and frustrated
the attempt. Bothwell escaped, but eight of his followers were
rsecuted. A fresh cause of tumult soon arose: the young Earl of
Moray, the heir of tho regent, was assassinated by the Earl of
Huntly; and as tho king was suspected of connivance, the citizens
indignantly arose, and openly insulted both the king and his
ministers. James thought it prudcut to retreat to Glasgow, where
he remained till the hurricane had subsided. Not long afterwards
the monarch was presented by these same citizens with ten tuns
of wine, and a hundred of their number were in attendance at the
baptism of Prince Henry; a guard of fifty citizens was also
appointed to protect his person from Bothwell. In 1598 a rebellion
broke out among the boys in the High School, and one of the bailies
■was shot by a youth while attempting to subdue it. James, annoyed
by the freedom of the language that was uttered from the pulpits,
attempted to restrain it, which excited an insurrection that not
only occasioned his prerogative to be insulted but his person to be
endangered. He, in consequence, retired-from the city, ordered all
the public courts to be removed, and was only prevented from
avenging himself on the city stUl further by the supplications and
cash of the magistrates. In 1596 James was again in collision with
his subjects, in consequence of some English players being intro-
duced into the city. Shakspeare is supposed to have been one
of the number. The clergy fulminated their abhorrence, and the
presbytery issued a decree against the players, which the privy
council aunuUed, ,ind the continuance of the players was tolerated,
which was foUowetl up, in June, 159S, by an ordinance that cvi-ry
Monday should be a play day. At this period an important alteration
was made in the computation of time. The year had hitherto
commenced on the 25th of March, but by a convention of estates,
which met on the 10th December, 1599, it was ordered that in
future New Year's Day should be on the let of January
The manners of the times are thus described by an Englishman
who visited Edinburgh in the year 1598 :— " Myself," says he, " waa
at a knight's house, who had many servants to attend liim, that
brought in his meat with their heads covered with blue caps, the
table being covered with great platters of porridge, each having a
little piece of sodden meat, and when the table was served tho
servants sat down with us ; but the upper mess, instead of por-
ridge, had a pullet with some prunes in the broth; and I observed
uoartof cookery or furniture of household stuff, but rather rude
neglect of both, though myself and companions, sent from the
governor of Berwick about bordering affairs, were entertained after
the best mauner. They drink pure wines, ^not mixed with sugar
like the English ; yet at feasts they put comfits in their wines,
after the French fashion, but they have not our vintners' fraud to
mix their wines. I did never see nor hear that they have any i>ublic
inns with signs hanging out, but the better sort of citizens brew
ale, their usual driuk, which will distemper a stranger's body.
Their bedsteads were then like cupboards in the wall, with doors
to be opened and shut at x>lea8ure; so that we climbed up to our
beds," &c. In 1600, the Duke of Rohan, having visited Edinburgh,
states that the city was about one thousand paces in length, and
from four to five hundred in breadth; and adds that there was
nothing remarkable in it but the great street, which was very long
and broad, and extended from one end of the town to the other;
the houses, he says, wore not sumptuous, being almost all built
of wood.
On the 24th of March, 1603, Queen Elizabeth died, and James
succeeded to the throne of England, to which country he imme-
diately departed, after taking a formal farewell of the citizens'of
Edinburgh, at the church of St. Giles, where he addressed them
after the sermon, and both parties, it is said, evinced deep emotion.
The superior splendour of the English throne caused Jamea,
perhaps, to think liis Scottish one too plain and unostentatious;
and, to change its character a little, he sent down to the magistrates
of Edinburgh patterns for their gowns, which they were directed
to wear, and, moreover, to have a sword of state carried before
them; but instead of sending, with these patterns, 59,000 merks,
wliich be owed, he obliged them to be content with 20,000, in full
of all demands; notwithstanding which, when the king paid his
long promised visit to his Scottish capital, in 1618, he was received
with pomp and addressed with adulation; the magistrates, upon
the " verie knees of their harts," doing him reverence, and styling
him the " perfection of eloquence and the quintessence of rulers."
They entertained him with a banquet, and presented him with a
sUver basin with 10,000 merks (about ^560 sterling) in it, in double
gold angels. A parliament was immediately convened, and among
other acts which it passed was one for the restitution of arch-
bishops, bishops and chapters. About this time the town council
purchased the mills of Bounington from Robert and John Logan,
with the lands and tiends belonging to them, for 1,230 merks Scots
{£&S 6s. 8d. sterHug). Inl621au act was passed for the coping of houses
with lead, slate or tiles, instead of thatch, and water was introduced
the same year by pipes ; three new bells, also, were imported from
Holland— two for St. Giles's church and one for the Netherbow Port.
March 27, 1625, closed James's career; and on the 3ist, Charles I,
was proclaimed king iu his stead; and in June, 1633, he waa
crowned King of Scotland in the Abbey of Holyrood.
The erection of Edinburgh into a bishopric, and an order for the
introduction of a liturgy into the churches, caused great tumults
in the city, resulting iu a general assembly at Glasgow, in 1638, by
which Presbytprianism was immediately restored. The treaties of
Berwick and Ripon exhibit both thehatred uf the Scotch to prelacy
and the folly of the monarch in endeavouring to enforce it. Soon
after the treaty of Ripon, Charles visited Edinburgh, but though
he was ostentatiously received, his conduct during his residence
was neither discreet nor grateful. The "great rebellion," as it is
termed, broke out shortly after, during which the " solemn league
and covenant" between the two nations, for the extirpation of
prelacy, was signed in the High Church, Edinburgh, in July, 16-13,
and twelve hundred men were sent in consequence to assist the
EngUsh parliamentary forces against Charles; but in 1645, the
covenanters being routed by Montrose, at Kilsyth, Edinburgh was
threatened with destruction by the Marquis unless the prisoners
of the king's party were instantly released, and the city at this
moment being desolated by the plaj^ue, his demands were complied
with. On the IBtb of May, 1650, the Marquk^ of Montrose was
brought a prisoner into Ediubui'gh,andthi'ee da^ after was hanged
at the Cross.
Averse to Republicanism, the Scots proclaimed the exiled Charles
the Second as their king, which brought upon them the avenging
sword of Cromwell; and in December, 1650, he was in possession ^f
Edinburgh and its castle, but the magistrates had fled to Stirling, the
head-quarters of Charles, leaving the city to be governed by thirty
chosen citizens. The battle of Worcester having placed Scotland
completely in the power of Cromwell, commissioners were sent by
him from England tu rule the kingdom, who arrived at Dalkeith iu
January, 1652 ; and from them the humble citizens were obliged to
obtain consent ere they could elect new magistrates. Under the
sway of Cromwell Edinburgh and Leith enjoyed repose; but so
greatly were they impoverished by so many years of strife, that
very few of the inhabitants were in a condition to pay their debts,
and the magistrates were served with a charge of hornintj for
.£550,000 Scots, ^43,833 6s. 8d. sterHng, which, with difiiculty they ob-
tained time to pay.
Dui'ing the period of the Commonwealth there was a virtual
anion between England and Scotland, and much salutary reform
was introduced in the 'municipal regulations. The restoration of
Charles in 1660 was hailed with joy by the town coimcil, who, in
return for a donation of £1,000 made to his Majesty, received per-
mission to levy a tax upon the citizens of one-third of a penny on
each pint of ale, aud twopence on each pint of wine consumed in
the city; indeed, at this epoch, both loyalty and disaffection were
made pretexts for amercing the citizens, in the one case by a tax,
and in the oihcr a fine. Adam Woodcock, at this period, was li-
censed by the town council to run a coach between Edinburgh and
Leith, the fare to be fourpence each person; and the baron b:nlie
of Broughton had a grant made to him of the goo and chattela
of all women, condemned for witchcraft.

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