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S Grade - Credit level questions
Unit 2, International Co-operation and Conflict (Context C, 1930s - 1960s)

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Section 1: Churchill and appeasement

Source A was written by Sylvia Pankhurst to Winston Churchill in April 1936.

Dear Mr Churchill…The danger to world peace and to the freer nations arising from the Fascist dictator states…has been present in my mind from the first…The ideals and practices of Fascism are obviously directed towards war and conquest…Had Fascist aggression in Africa [Italian invasion of Abyssinia, now Ethiopia] been firmly checked at the start, the world would present a very different picture today. The mood of Hitler would undoubtedly be much less aggressive than it is…I again call upon you to raise these matters in the House of Commons...

Extract from letter by Sylvia Pankhurst to Churchill, 15 April 1936 (Churchill Papers, CHAR 7/32/23-28)

  1. How useful is Source A as evidence of public opinion about Hitler's military growth?
  2. Identify and explain the attitude of Sylvia Pankhurst to the fascist dictator nations in the 1930's.

    Source B is a cartoon showing Churchill sitting at his desk. behind him stands the ghost of Churchill's ancestor the Duke of Marlborough who had helped save Britain from enemies in Europe in the 1700's. Churchill had just finished writing a history of his ancestor called Life of Marlborough. The cartoon was published in Punch, November, 1938.

















    (Churchill Papers, CHAR 2/355/45)
    Reproduced by permission of Punch Ltd

  3. What do you think were the intentions of the author of Source A and the creator of Source B?

    Source C was written by Churchill on 14 March, 1939.

    The Czechoslovak Republic [Czechoslovakia] is being broken up before our eyes. Their gold is to be stolen by the Nazis. The Nazi system is to blot out* every form of internal freedom…They are about to lose all symbols of an independent democratic State…Many people at the time of the September crisis thought they were only giving away the interests of Czechoslovakia, but with every month that passes you will see that they were also giving away the interests of Britain, and the interests of peace and justice.

    blot out - take away

    Extract from speech by Churchill at Waltham Abbey, 14 March 1939 (Churchill Papers, CHAR 9/136/75-78).
    Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Ltd and the University of Southampton. Copyright Winston S. Churchill 1999

  4. How fully do Sources B and C show British reaction to Hitler's move against Czechoslovakia between September 1938 and March 1939? You should use the sources and your own knowledge to answer this question.
  5. Discuss the attitude of Source C towards appeasement.
  6. How typical was Source C of British reaction to the Czech crisis of March 1939?

Grade - General level questions
Unit 2, International Co-operation and Conflict (Context C, 1930s - 1960s)
Section 1: Churchill and appeasement

Source A was written by Sylvia Pankhurst to Winston Churchill in April 1936.

Dear Mr Churchill…The danger to world peace…arising from the Fascist dictator states…has been present in my mind from the first…The ideals and practices of Fascism are obviously directed towards war and conquest…the national consciousness [the opinion of the British public] has been deeply impressed by the ideal of the League of Nations and collective security…Had Fascist aggression in Africa [Italian invasion of Abyssinia, now Ethiopia] been firmly checked at the start, the world would present a very different picture today. The mood of Hitler would undoubtedly be much less aggressive than it is…I again call upon you to raise these matters in the House of Commons...

Extract from letter by Sylvia Pankhurst to Churchill, 15 April 1936 (Churchill Papers, CHAR 7/32/23-28)

  1. How useful is Source A as evidence of public concern about fascist aggression in the 1930's?
  2. Identify and explain the references towards the League of Nations in Source A.
  3. How fully does Source A describe the reaction of the British public to German military growth in the 1930's? You should use your own knowledge and give reasons for your answer.

    Source B is a cartoon showing Churchill sitting at his desk. Behind him stands the ghost of the Duke of Marlborough who was Churchill's ancestor. The Duke of Marlborough helped to save Britain from enemies in Europe in the 1700s. Churchill had just finished writing a history of his ancestor called Life of Marlborough. The cartoon was published in Punch, November, 1938.

















    (Churchill Papers, CHAR 2/355/45)
    Reproduced by permission of Punch Ltd

    Source C was written by Churchill on 14 March, 1939.

    Churchill is explaining why the Munich agreement was a disaster for Britain:
    The Czechoslovak Republic [Czechoslovakia] is being broken up before our eyes…They [the Czechs] are defenceless…It is no use going to their aid when they are defenceless, when we would not go to their aid when they were strong… Although we can do nothing to stop it, we shall be sufferers on a very great scale.

    Extract from speech by Churchill at Waltham Abbey, 14 March 1939 (Churchill Papers, CHAR 9/136/75-78).
    Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Ltd and the University of Southampton. Copyright Winston S. Churchill 1999

  4. How useful are Sources B and C as evidence of feelings about appeasement in the late 1930's?
  5. Identify and explain the attitude towards appeasement in Source C.
  6. Do you agree with Churchill that Munich was a disaster for Britain? Explain your answer fully.

S Grade - Foundation level questions
Unit 2, International Co-operation and Conflict (Context C, 1930s - 1960s)
Section 1: Churchill and appeasement

Source A is a summary of a speech made by Churchill on 14 March, 1939.

Churchill said that the Munich agreement was a great disaster for Britain because Britain had lost its pride and it had lost an ally.
Churchill believed that it was too late to help Czechoslovakia because the Czech army was being broken up and that the Czechs were defenceless.

Summary of part of a speech by Churchill at Waltham Abbey, 14 March 1939 (Churchill Papers, CHAR 9/136/75-78).
Reproduced by permission of Curtis Brown Ltd and the University of Southampton. Copyright Winston S. Churchill 1999

  1. Why is Source A useful as evidence of British reaction to the Czech crisis in the late 1930s?
    Give three reasons.

    Reason 1 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________ Reason 2 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________
    Reason 3 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________

  2. Why did Churchill think it was no use going to the aid of Czechoslovakia in March 1939? Give two reasons.

    Reason 1 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________
    Reason 2 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________

  3. Why did Churchill think the Munich agreement was a disaster for Britain?
    Give two reasons.

    Reason 1 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________
    Reason 2 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________

Source B is a summary of a letter written to Churchill in 1936.

The letter said that dictators such as Hitler were a danger to world peace. The writer of the letter also complained that Hitler was arming for a war but that we in Britain were doing nothing to stop him.

Summary of part of a letter by Sylvia Pankhurst to Churchill, 15 April 1936 (Churchill Papers, CHAR 7/32/23-28)

  1. Why is the letter reported in Source B useful as evidence that people in Britain were worried about the possibility of war breaking out in the 1930s?
    Give three reasons.

    Reason 1 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________
    Reason 2 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________
    Reason 3 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________

  2. Why did the writer of the letter reported in Source B think a war was likely?
    Give two reasons.

    Reason 1 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________
    Reason 2 _____________________________________________
                   _____________________________________________