1. Do all maps show real places?
Maps can show a scaled-down version of a real place, or entirely fantastical realms, such as Tolkien's Middle Earth. They can also be a mix of real and imagined space, as in local development plans or planning applications.
These plans show how a place could look in a possible future. Sometimes the finished work is very different to the early proposals and therefore plans can show things which never existed.
Equally, changes can be made which are never captured on a map. The feature may simply not be selected for inclusion on the map, be deliberately censored, such as military installations, or go unrecorded in the case of a temporary building or a shifting sandbank.