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  naturalist, Thos. Edward (b. 1S14); Rt. Mackenzie
  Daniel (1814-47), the 'Scottish Boz,' student at Mari-
  schal Col. ; Thos. Dempster (1579-1625), historian, stu-
  dent; Archibald Forbes (b. 183S), journalist, student;
  Jn. Forbes (1593-1648), divine, student at King's Col.,
  and minister of St Nicholas ; Pat. Forbes (1564-1635),
  Bishop of Aberdeen from 1618 ; Win. Forsyth (d. 1879),
  poet and journalist ; Sir Alexander Fraser (d. 1681),
  physician to Charles II. , student ; Simon Fraser, Lord
  Lovat (1667-1747), student at King's Col. ; Al. Gerard,
  D.D. (172S-95), educated at Grammar School, student at
  Marischal Col., and professor there of nat. philos. 1752,
  of divinity 1760, minister of Greyfriars 1759, and prof,
  of theology at King's Col. 1771 ; Walter Goodal (1706-
  66), antiquary, student at King's Col. ; Rt. Gordon
  (15S0-1661), geographer and historian, student at Mari-
  schal Col. ; Sir AVm. Grant (1754-1822), solicitor-gene-
  ral and master of the rolls, student at King's Col. ;
  Gilbert Gray (d. 1614), second principal of Marischal
  Col., from 1598; Dav. Gregory (1627-1720), mechanician;
  his brother, James (163S-75), student at Marischal Col.,
  the famous astronomer ; Wm. Guthrie (1701-70), histori-
  cal and miscellaneous writer, student at King's Col. ; Rt.
  Hall (1764-1831), dissenting divine, student ib. ; Rt.
  Hamilton, LL.D. (1743-1829), prof, at Marischal Col. of
  nat. phil. 1779, of math. 17S0-1814 ; Jos. Hume (1777-
  1855), medical student, and M.P. for Aberdeen 1818 ;
  AVm. Hunter (1777-1815), naturalist, student at Mari-
  schal Col. ; Arthur Johnston (1587-1641), Latin poet,
  student and rector of King's Col. ; Jn. Johnston (1570-
  1612), Latin poet, student ib. ; Rev. Ales. Keith, D.D.
  (b. 1791), student at Marischal Col. ; Geo. Keith, fifth
  Earl Marischal (1553-1623), student of King's, and
  founder of Marischal Col. in 1593 ; Bishop Rt. Keith
  (1681-1757), student at Marischal Col. ; John Leslie,
  Bishop of Ross (1526-96), vicar-general of Aberdeen 155S ;
  Jn. Leslie, Bishop of Raphoe (d. 1671), student ; David
  Low, Bishop of Ross (1768-1855), student and LL.D. of
  Marischal Col. ; Geo. Low (1746-95), naturalist, student ;
  Geo. Macdonald (b. 1S24), poet and novelist, student at
  King's Col. ; AVm. Macgillivray, LL.D. (d. 1852), prof,
  of nat. hist, in Marischal Col. from 1841 ; Sir Geo.
  Mackenzie (1636-92), legal antiquary, student ; Ewen
  Maclachlan (1775-1S22), Gaelic poet, bursar of King's
  Col., and head-master of Grammar School 1819 ; Colin
  Maekurin (169S-1746), math. prof, in Marischal Col.
  1717-25 ; Jn. Maclean, Bishop of Saskatchewan (b.
  1828), student; Jas. Macpherson (173S-96), of Ossian
  celebrity, student at King's Col. 1752 ; David Mallet
  (1700-65), poet, educated at Aberdeen ; Jas. Marr (1700-
  61), M.A. of King's Col. 1721, master of Poor's Hospital
  1742; Jas. Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), prof, of nat. philos.
  in Marischal Col. 1856-60 ; AA T m. Meston (16SS-1745),
  burlesque poet, student at Marischal Col., and teacher
  in Grammar School ; Jn. Pringle Nichol (1804-59),
  astronomer, student at King's Col. ; Alexander Nicoll
  (1793-1828), orientalist, educated at Grammar School
  and Marischal Col. ; Sir- Jas. Outram (1S05-63), Indian
  general, student at Marischal Col. ; AVm. Robinson
  Pirie, D.D. (b. 1S04), divinity professor 1843, principal
  1877 ; Jas. Ramsay (1733-S9), philanthropist, bursar of
  King's CoL ; Thos. Reid (1710-96), metaphysician, stu-
  dent and librarian of Marischal Col., prof, of philos.
  in King's Col. 1752-63; Sir Jn. Rose, Bart. (b. 1S20),
  student at King's Col. ; Alex. Ross (1699-1784), poet,
  M.A. of Marischal Col. 1718; Thos. Ruddirnan (1674-
  1757), Latin grammarian, bursar of King's Col. 1690-
  94; Helenus Scott, M.D. (d. 1821), student; Hy.
  Scougal (1650-7S), prof, of philos. in King's Col. 166*9-
  73; Jas. Sharpe, Archbishop of St Andrews (1613-79),
  student at Marischal Col. ; Bailie Alex. Skene (flo. 1670),
  historian of Aberdeen; Rev. Jn. Skinner (1721-1807),
  poet, bursar of Marischal Col. ; his son, Jn. Skinner
  (1743-1816), student at Marischal Col., and Bishop
  of Aberdeen from 17S4 ; Jn. Spalding (flo. 1624-45),
  commissary clerk and diarist ; and John Stuart, LL. D.
  (1813-77), antiquary, student. It may be added that
  about 1715 Rob Roy was staying with his kinsman,
  Dr Jas. Gregory, prof, of medicine in King's Col. ; that
  in 1773 Dr Samuel Johnson and Boswell put up at the
  New Inn ; and that Bums came to ' Aberdeen, a lazy
  town,' 7 Sept 1787.
  The Synod of Aberdeen, generally meeting there, but
  sometimes at Banff, comprises the presbyteries of Aber-
  deen, Kincardine O'Neil, Afford, Garioch, Ellon, Deer,
  Turriff, and Fordyee. Pop. (1871) 285,417, of whom,
  according to a parliamentary return (1st May 1S79)
  73,S52 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in
  1878. The sums raised by its 143 congregations on
  behalf of Christian liberality amounted to £28,836 in
  1880, when there were 210 Sabbath schools within it,
  with 19,956 scholars. The presbytery of Aberdeen com-
  prises 34 congregations, viz., the 14 Aberdeen churches,
  and Ruthrieston, Old Machar, University, AVoodside,
  Banchory-Deveniek, Craigiebuckler, Belhelvie, Drum-
  oak, Durris, Dyce, Fintray, Kinnellar, Maryculter, New-
  hills, New Machar, Nigg, Peterculter, Portlethen,
  Skene, and Stoneywood. Pop. (1871) 111,807, the
  communicants numbering 22,6S7 in 1S78, and the sums
  raised for Christian liberality amounting to £13,836 in
  1880. — The Free Church synod, whose presbyteries are
  identical with those of the Established synod, in 1SS0
  had 107 churches, with 28,734 communicants ; its
  presbytery included 37 congregations with 14,378 com-
  municants — the 21 Aberdeen churches, and Banchory-
  Deveniek, Belhelvie, Blackburn, Cults, Drumoak, Dur-
  ris, Dyce, Kingswell, Maryculter, Newhills, Old Machar,
  Peterculter, Skene, Tony, AA 7 oodside, and Bourtreebush.
  —The U.P. presbytery of Aberdeen in 1S80 had 32S3
  members and 16 congregations — the 6 Aberdeen churches,
  and Banchory, Craigdam, Ellon, Lumsden, Lynturk,
  Midmar, Old Meldrnm, Shiels, Stonehaven, and AA T ood-
  side. — Since 1577 there have been 17 Protestant bishops
  of Aberdeen, to which the revived diocese of Orkney was
  added in 1S64. In 1880 the congregations of the 37
  churches within the united diocese numbered 10,759,
  the communicants 5316, and the children attending
  Episcopal schools 23SS. — After having been vacant for
  301 years, the Catholic see of Aberdeen was re-established
  in 1878 ; and in its diocese in 18S0 there were 49 priests,
  33 missions, 53 churches, chapels, and stations, 2 col
  leges, 7 convents, and 20 congregational schools.
  See, besides works cited under Aberdeenshire,
  Bailie Alex. Skene's Succinct Survey of the famous City
  of Aberdeen (16S5), AV. Thorn's History of Aberdeen (2
  vols., 1811), AVm. Kennedy's Annals of Aberdeen (2
  vols., 1818), Joseph Robertson's Book of Bon-Accord
  (1839), James Bruce's Lives of Eminent Hen of Aber-
  deen (1841), vol. i. of Billings' Baronial and Ecclesias-
  tical Antiquities (1845), Cosmo Innes' Sketches of Early
  Scottish History (1S61), Aberdeen Fifty Years Ago
  (1868), Slezer's Theatrum Scotia: (1693 ; new ed. 1874),
  an excellent series of articles in the Builder (1865-66,
  1S77) ; and, published by the Spalding Club, the Rev.
  Jas. Gordon's DescrijHion of Botlie Towns of Aber-
  deen, 1661, ed. by Cosmo Innes (1842), Extracts from
  the Council Begistcr of the Burgh of Aberdeen, 1398-
  1625, ed. by Jn. Stuart (2 vols., 1844-49), his edition of
  Spalding's llemorialls of the Trubles in Scotland and
  England, 1624-45 (2 vols., 1850-51), his Selections from
  the Records of the Kirk-Session, Presbytery, and Synod
  of Aberdeen, 1562-16S1 (1S46), and C. Innes' Eegistrum
  Episcopatxis Aberdonensis (2 vols. , 1845), and Selections
  from the Records of the University and. King's College,
  Aberdeen, 1494-1854 (1854). Besides the Ordnance 6-
  ineh and 3^ maps, there are the Ordnance 1-inch map,
  sh. 77 (1873), Keith and Gibb's lf-inch Map of the
  Environs (Ab. 1S7S), and Gibb & Hay's 9-inch Map of
  the City (Ab. 1880).
  Aberdeen and Banff Railway, a section of the Great
  North of Scotland railway, starts from the main line
  at Inveramsay, 20i miles NAV of Aberdeen. The south-
  ern part of it to Turriff (18 miles) was authorised on
  15 June lS55,under the title of the Banff, Macduff, and
  Turriff Junction ; was then designed to be prolonged
  northward to Banff and Macduff; was opened to Turriff,
  on 5 Sept. 1857; and took the name of the Aberdeen
  and Turriff Railway on 19 April 1859. The part from

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