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  electric telegraphs ; tariff then being 20
  words, 5 miles, is. ; 100 miles, 2s. 6d. ;
  above 100 miles, 5s.
  1869. Sir Charles Wheatstone first in-
  troduces his invention to the Electric Tele-
  graph Co.
  1870, 29th January to 5th February.
  Electric Telegraph taken over by the
  State.
  1872, 2ist October. Cablegram from
  the Mayor of Adelaide, S.A. , received by
  Lord Mayor of London, and replied to.
  1876, February. Direct telegraph line
  from London to New Zealand.
  1877. Quadruplex telegraphy successful
  between London and Liverpool.
  1882. Many submarine cables laid.
  1883, 29th March. Principle of a Six-
  penny Telegram adopted by the House of
  Commons.
  1885. Sixpenny Telegrams come into
  operation. New tariff, ^d. per word ;
  minimum, 6d.
  1892. Another Telegraph Act.
  1892, September. Telegraph, England
  to Panama.
  1894, 13th June. Professor Elisha Gray's
  teleantograph exhibited at Royal Society.
  1896, 2ist January. About 160,000 miles
  submarine cables in the world ; 120,000'
  owned by England, 150,000 by other Euro-
  pean authorities, 22,000 by American com-
  panies (Postmaster-General, U.S.A.).
  1S96. The Queen causes to be erected
  in Whittingehame Churchyard a Portland
  stone cross as a mark of regard and in
  remembrance of George \Yarren, thirty-four
  years telegraphist to Her Majesty.
  DIAMOND JUBILEE.
  1897. Delivery of telegrams free within
  three miles, and 3d. each additional mile.
  Abolition of porterage charges in London.
  1901. Underground cable, I^ondon to
  Birmingham, seventy-six wires.
  1902, 26th March. First section Pacific
  cable. New Zealand to Australia.
  THE TELEPHONE.
  1667. Robert Hooke conveyed sounds
  by distended wires.
  1 82 1. Wheatstone conveyed sounds by a
  deal rod.
  1837. Page produced tones by magnet-
  ising and de-magnetising an iron bar.
  1843. De La Rive advances the prin-
  ciples.
  1855, loth May. Prof. Pepper lectures
  before the Queen at the Polytechnic.
  1861. Philip Reis exhibits a partially
  articulate electric telephone.
  1873, Elisha Gray improved Reis's.
  1S77. Cromwell Varley produces a
  musical telephone.
  1877, 1 2th February. Prof. A. Graham
  Pell produced articulate telephone between
  Boston and Salen, U.S.A. (18 miles).
  1877, 23rd August. Preece (Sir W. H.)
  exhibits telephones before the ISritish As-
  sociation at Plymouth.
  1878, 14th and 15th January. Preece
  (Sir W. H.) exhibits telephones before the
  Queen at Osborne.
  1878 (summer). Telephone Company
  established.
  1878, nth November. Edison's carbon
  loud speaking telephone between London
  and Norwich (115 miles of wire).
  1879, 20th, and 2ist March. Fred Allan
  Gower improved Bell's telephone.
  1879, 6th September. Telephone (Edi-
  son's system) Exchange opened with ten
  offices.
  1880, 26th July. Bell & Edison's Co.
  form the United 'relephone Co.
  1880, September. Telephone tried at
  Carberry (Scotland) Collieries.
  1880, 9th November. Telephone es-
  tablished between Liverpool and Man-
  chester. The Mayors exchange telephone
  messages.
  1880, 20th December. Telephone Co.
  decided to be an infraction of the State's
  Electric Telegraph Monopoly bought by
  Act of 1868.
  1881, nth April. Legal arrangements
  with Companies, and Licences granted by
  Postmaster-General.
  1881. Prof. Dolhear (Mass.) announces
  a new system different from Bell and
  Edison's.
  1882. At the National Telephone Co. 's
  Annual Meeting, 6 per cent dividend
  announced.
  1882. 2 1 St December. Telephone es-
  tablished between London and Brighton.
  1S83, 24th March. Telephone between
  New York and Chicago (950 miles).
  1883. Telephone largely developed in
  Europe and America.
  1887, 2nd February. Telephone be-
  tween Paris and Brussels (by Dr Cornelius
  Herz's micro-telephone).
  1887. February. Telephone Palace at
  Stockholm.
  1888. 6th August. Telephone between
  Paris and Marseilles.
  1889. December. Pulsion telephone by
  ordinary wire without electricity invented
  by Lemuel Mellett, and in use in American
  railways and Midland Railway.
  XVIIa

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